- Teaching Notes
- Answer Key
- Supplemental Materials
Retro Goes Modern
The Evolution and Evasive Maneuvers of HIV
Jeffrey J. Byrd
Samantha L. Elliott
This case study considers the evolution of HIV from SIV, as well as the evolution of HIV within humans by mutation rate. It also discusses the immune evasion proteins NEF and VPU, and how anti-retroviral drugs act to stall viral replication. Finally, the case looks at current strategies for developing an HIV vaccine, and the challenges we face in bringing a cure for HIV to fruition. Written to promote interdisciplinary connections between an upper-division virology class and an immunology class, the case is the second case in a set of three case studies. The other two cases, also published on this site, include "Chickens and Humans and Pigs... Oh My!" and "Hidden in Plain Sight: Immune Evasion by Herpes Simplex-1 Virus."
|Keywords:||Human immunodeficiency virus; HIV; Simian immunodeficiency virus; SIV; retrovirus; Retroviridae; infection; infectious disease; drug resistance; vaccination; immune evasion; immunity; immunology; virology; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; AIDS|
|Topical Area:||Science and the media|
|Educational Level:||Undergraduate upper division|
|Type/Method:||Analysis (Issues), Discussion, Interrupted, Journal Article|
|Subject Headings:||Biology (General) Medicine (General) Microbiology Public Health Interdisciplinary Sciences|
|Copyright:||Copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work.|
Case teaching notes are password-protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, begin the process by registering here.
Teaching notes are intended to help teachers select and adopt a case. They typically include a summary of the case, teaching objectives, information about the intended audience, details about how the case may be taught, and a list of references and resources.
Download Teaching Notes
Answer keys for the cases in our collection are password-protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, begin the process by registering here.
Get Answer Key
The supplemental material below may be used with this case study:Click and Learn: Cells of the Immune System
An 11-slide presentation with accompanying worksheet that describes the non-specific defense system called the innate and adaptive immune system. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
VideosThe following video(s) are recommended for use in association with this case study.
HIV Life Cycle
A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
AZT Blocks Reverse Transcriptase
A short video animation showing how AZT stops reverse transcriptase because HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Running time: 1:46 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.second
A short video clip showing how protease inhibitors prevent maturation of viral proteins inside HIV particles. Running time: 1:06 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.