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A Metabolic Storm

Tragedy in the Operating Room



Author:

Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu

Abstract:

This "clicker" case presents the true story of a 20-year-old athlete who developed a life threatening reaction to anesthesia during a simple elective surgical procedure. His response was unexpected, but not unusual for individuals who possess an inherited skeletal muscle disorder leading to a condition called malignant hyperthermia because the symptoms only appear in the presence of certain anesthetics. Once the anesthetics act on skeletal muscle proteins, the patient experiences elevated body temperature up to 107°F, muscle rigidity, organ failure, and eventual death if left untreated. Designed for a large enrollment course in human anatomy and physiology or an upper-level physiology course, the case is useful for teaching the events leading to skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation, the importance of ATP and calcium ions in muscle contraction, and how a mutation in a skeletal muscle protein associated with excitation-contraction coupling can lead to malignant hyperthermia. The case is an adaptation of "A Perfect Storm in the Operating Room: Anesthesia and Skeletal Muscle Contractions" by Kelley Grorud published by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) in 2010.

Objectives:
  • Understand the sequence of events that leads to skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation.
  • Appreciate the important role of ATP and calcium ions in muscle contraction.
  • Know how skeletal muscle generates and uses ATP.
  • Explain how a mutation in a skeletal muscle protein associated with excitation-contraction coupling leads to a life-threatening condition called malignant hyperthermia (MH).
  • Understand the signs of the condition and treatment strategy for a patient who shows signs of MH in the operating room.
  • Learn how patients who suspect they possess themutation can be tested prior to a surgical procedure.
Keywords: Skeletal muscle; excitation-contraction coupling; adenosine triphosphate; ATP; role of calcium and ATP in contraction; malignant hyperthermia; autosomal dominant disorder; ryanodine receptors; Dantrolene; anesthesia
Topical Area: N/A
Educational Level: Undergraduate lower division, Undergraduate upper division, Graduate, Clinical education
Formats: PDF, PowerPoint
Type/Method: Clicker, Interrupted, Journal Article
Language: English
Subject Headings: Cell Biology   Genetics / Heredity   Molecular Biology   Physiology   Medicine (General)   Nursing   Pharmacy / Pharmacology   Sports Science   Biology (General)  
Date Posted: 5/8/2013
Date Modified: N/A
Copyright: Copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work.

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