Skip to Content

Mark’s Failing Heart

Three Blood Volume Regulating Hormone Systems


Author(s)

James R. Cronmiller
Biology Department
Monroe Community College
jcronmiller@monroecc.edu
Daegan A. Keyes

Monroe Community College
MaryJo A. Vest
Biology Department
Monroe Community College
mvest@monroecc.edu

Abstract

This directed case study centers on the story of a 65-year-old man with a weakened ventricle, resulting in reduced cardiac output. Students are provided with a description of the patient’s acute heart failure event and a hospital chart that includes his history, physical exam, blood test results, chest X-ray, ECG and ejection fraction. Students review this information in order to answer a series of 18 questions. Background information explains the importance of maintaining mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the factors that contribute to MAP, including cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and blood volume. Also described are three volume/pressure regulating hormone systems: renin angiotensin, aldosterone system (RAAS); antidiuretic hormone (ADH); and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain (ventricular) natriuretic peptide (BNP). The use of Entresto (sacubitril/valsartan), a novel drug used in treating patients with acute heart failure, is also considered. The case was developed for college-level pre-nursing, pre-med, biology, and physiology students. 


Objectives

  • Deepen understanding of MAP and the factors that influence MAP including blood volume, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance.
  • Deepen understanding of the three hormone systems that regulate blood volume and pressure (RAAS, ADH and ANP/BNP).
  • Deepen understanding of left ventricle heart failure, its potential causes, and treatment.

Keywords

Heart failure; blood volume; renin; angiotensin; aldosterone; RAAS; atrial natriuretic peptide; ANP; Entresto; mean arterial pressure; MAP; cardiac output; ADH; antidiuretic hormone; brain natriuretic peptide; BNP

Topical Areas

N/A

Educational Level

Undergraduate lower division, Undergraduate upper division

Format

PDF

Type / Methods

Directed

Language

English

Subject Headings

Anatomy  |   Physiology  |   Medicine (General)  |   Nursing  |  


Date Posted

03/27/2020

Teaching Notes

Case teaching notes are password-protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, begin the process by registering.

Teaching notes are intended to help teachers select and adopt a case. They typically include a summary of the case, teaching objectives, information about the intended audience, details about how the case may be taught, and a list of references and resources.

Answer Key

Answer keys for the cases in our collection are password-protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, begin the process by registering.

Comments