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The Heart of the Problem

From Heart Attack to Kidney Failure


Author(s)

Kristine A. Garner
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
kristie.garner@uafs.edu
Brandy C. Ree
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
brandy.ree@uafs.edu

Abstract

This interrupted case study was developed for an undergraduate class in human cardiac physiology. The story follows a patient whose heart attack damaged a papillary muscle in the left ventricle of the heart. This caused valve dysfunction and mitral valve regurgitation resulting in left-sided heart failure, which in turn led to systemic problems including pulmonary edema and kidney failure. This case study was designed to follow a chapter or unit covering the heart and/or the cardiovascular system, and would be appropriate for any undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course or for nursing students. Before beginning the activity, students should know the anatomy of the heart, understand the function of the heart valves and blood flow through the heart, be able to calculate cardiac output, and understand the implications of blood pressure on capillary filtration. This case study was written specifically for students who have not yet covered the respiratory system or the urinary system.


Objectives

  • Describe the structure and function of the heart.
  • Describe the direction of blood flow in the heart.
  • State the function of heart valves.
  • Relate cardiac output to blood pressure.
  • Link pressure dynamics to blood flow in the body.
  • Explain how blood pressure is related to capillary filtration.
  • Correlate the functions of the cardiovascular system to the pulmonary and urinary systems.

Keywords

Heart failure; mitral valve prolapse; blood pressure; blood flow; cardiac output; capillary filtration;

Topical Areas

N/A

Educational Level

Undergraduate lower division, Clinical education

Format

PDF

Type / Methods

Discussion, Interrupted

Language

English

Subject Headings

Physiology  |   Nursing  |  


Date Posted

12/8/2015

Teaching Notes

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Supplemental Materials

The supplemental material below is recommended for use with this case study.

  Cardiology Virtual Lab hhmi/

Answer Key

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Videos

The following video(s) are recommended for use in association with this case study.

  • Heart Function hhmi/
    Short animation showing the movement of blood through the heart. Runnung time: 0:33 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • How a Heart Attack Occurs hhmi/
    Short 3-D animation that shows how plaques form in a blood vessel, leading to blockage and a heart attack. Running time: 037 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Heart Attack and Blocked Arteries hhmi/
    This short video clip makes use of a model of a heart and an artery to describe how blockages lead to heart attack and tissue damage. Running time: 3:59 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.

Comments


Kyle Hetrick
khetrick3@ivytech.edu
Life & Physical Science
Ivy Tech Community College
Bloomington, IN
10/31/2018
This was a well-designed case study for my 200-level human physiology class. It took minimal tweaking to adapt to my needs, and it served as an effective transition from the CV system we just completed and into the respiratory and renal system topics we will be covering next.

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