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Cats Have Nine Lives, But Only One Liver

The Effects of Acetaminophen


Author(s)

Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Teresa M. Schulz
Science Department
Lansing Community College
schulzt@lcc.edu
William H. Cliff
Department of Biology
Niagara University
bcliff@niagara.edu
Ann W. Wright
Department of Biology
Canisius College
Mary Allen
Department of Biology
Hartwick College
allenm1@hartwick.edu
Mark L. Kuhlmann
Department of Biology
Hartwick College
kuhlmannm@hartwick.edu
Robert H. Grant
Editorial Department
The Scientist
info@the-scientist.com
Teresa M. Schulz
Science Department
Lansing Community College
schulzt@lcc.edu
Kathy Gallucci
Biology Department
Elon University
gallucci@elon.edu
Preeti Dhar
Chemistry Department
SUNY New Paltz
dharp@newpaltz.edu
Herbert House (rr)
Biology Department
Elon University
househ@elon.edu
Susan Holt
Life Sciences Learning Center
University of Rochester
sholtbmn@aol.com
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Erik Zavrel
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Cornell University
eaz29@cornell.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Barbra Burdett
Biology, Anthropology
Lincoln College
bburdett@lincolncollege.edu
Angela Green
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Merri Lynn Casem
Department of Biological Science
California State University Fullerton
mcasem@fullerton.edu
Dan Johnson
Biology Department
Wake Forest University
johnsoad@wfu.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Christopher Hollister
University Libraries
University at Buffalo
cvh2@buffalo.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Deborah Engelen-Eigles
Department of Sociology / Women and Gender Studies
Century College
debbie.engelen@century.edu
Jamie G. McMinn
Psychology Department
Westminster College
mcminnjg@westminster.edu
Jamie G. McMinn
Psychology Department
Westminster College
mcminnjg@westminster.edu
Sheila O’Brien Quinn
Department of Psychology
Salve Regina University
sheila.quinn@salve.edu
Kathleen A. Cornely
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Providence College
kcornely@providence.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Melinda Box
Department of Natural Sciences
Wake Technical Community College
mcbox@waketech.edu
Michael Tessmer
Chemistry Department
Southwestern College
mtessmer@sckans.edu
Michael S. Hudecki (rr)
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
David L. Ozsvath
Department of Geography/Geology
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
dozsvath@uwsp.edu
Angela Wisniewski
Department of Family Medicine and Pharmacy Practice
University at Buffalo
amw25@buffalo.edu
Thuy N. Nguyen
Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics & Policy
University of Southern California
t.nguyen@usc.edu
David Newberger
Department of Family Medicine
University at Buffalo
dsn@buffalo.edu
Erica F. Kosal
Department of Biology
North Carolina State University
efkosal@ncsu.edu
Pauline A. Lizotte
Mathematics, Science and Health Careers
Manchester Community College
plizotte@mcc.commnet.edu
Gretchen E. Knapp
Biology Department
Illinois State University
geknapp@ilstu.edu
Brent J.F. Hill
Biology Department
University of Central Arkansas
bhill@uca.edu
Allison Russo
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Morgan Falk
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Merle K. Heidemann
College of Natural Science, Emeritus
Michigan State University
heidema2@msu.edu
Gerald Urquhart
Lyman Briggs School of Science
Michigan State University
urquhar5@msu.edu
M. Elizabeth Strasser
Department of Anthropology
Sacramento State
strasser@saclink.csus.edu
Thomas Horvath
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
horvattg@oneonta.edu
Stephanie L. Brooke
Psychology Department
University of Phoenix
stephanielbrooke@aol.com
Janet Morahan-Martin
Department of Applied Psychology
Bryant University
jmorahan@bryant.edu
Elizabeth R. McCain
Biology Department
Muhlenberg College
mccain@muhlenberg.edu
Cindy Trussell
Natural Sciences
Kodiak College / University of Alaska Anchorage
ctrussell@kodiak.alaska.edu
Celeste A. Leander
Department of Biology & Zoology
The University of British Columbia
cleander@interchange.ubc.ca
Robert J. Huskey
Biology Department
University of Virginia
Teresa M. Schulz
Science Department
Lansing Community College
schulzt@lcc.edu
Wilma V. Colon Parrilla
Biological Sciences
University of Puerto Rico
wvcolon@uprrp.edu
Antoinette Miller
Psychology Department
Clayton State University
antoinettemiller@clayton.edu
Karen E. Bledsoe
Biology Department
Western Oregon University
bledsoek@wou.edu
Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Kathleen Archer
Biology Department
Trinity College
EKathleen.Archer@trincoll.edu
Lauren Sahl
Corning School of Ocean Studies
Maine Maritime Academy
lauren.sahl@mma.edu
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Melanie K. Rathburn
Department of General Education
Mount Royal University
mrathburn@mtroyal.ca
Karina J. Baum
Division of Natural Science / College of General Studies
Boston University
karibaum@bu.edu
David W. Kelley
Department of Geography
University of St. Thomas
dwkelley@stthomas.edu
Rebecca Helgesen
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Debra A. Meuler
Biology Department
Cardinal Stritch University
dameuler@stritch.edu
Elaine S. Chapman (rr)
Department of Biology
Illinois College
chapman@ic.edu
Phoebe R. Stubblefield
Department of Anthropology
University of North Dakota
phoebe.stubblefield@und.edu
Elizabeth Scharf
Department of Anthropology
University of North Dakota
elizabeth.scharf@und.nodak.edu
Ling Chen
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lchen@bmcc.cuny.edu
Jennifer Y. Anderson
Health Science / Nursing
Brookdale Community College
jyanderson1@mail.brookdalecc.edu
Diane R. Wang
Biology, Plant Breeding and Genetics
Cornell University
drw44@cornell.edu
Keely Roen
Department of Wildlife Technology
Penn State DuBois
kat175@psu.edu
Karen T. Lee
Department of Biology
Univeristy at Pittsburgh at Johnstown
ktlee@pitt.edu
Rosemary Martin
School of Medicine / Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
The Australian National Univerity
rosemary.martin@anu.edu.au
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Sarah G. Stonefoot
Department of Art & Art History
Beloit College
stonefos@beloit.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Lisa D. Hager
Psychology Department
Spring Hill College
lhager@shc.edu
Lisa Marie Rubin
Formulary Management
VA Western New York Healthcare System
Lexpress1982@yahoo.com; Lisa.Rubin@va.gov
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Bill Rhodes
Department of Horticulture
Clemson University
brhodes@clemson.edu
Maha M. Alkhazindar
Biotechnology
Cairo University
Nancy A. Schiller
University Libraries / National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
schiller@buffalo.edu
Ye Chen-Izu
Departments of Pharmacology, Biomedical Engineering, and Medicine
University of California Davis
ychenizu@ucdavis.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Anne Galbraith
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
galbrait.anne@uwlax.edu
David R. Howard
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
howard.davi@uwlax.edu
Christopher T.  Bailey
Division of Natural and Mathematical Sciences
Wells College
cbailey@wells.edu
Mohammad Mahroof-Tahir
Department of Chemistry
St. Cloud State University
mmahroof@stcloudstate.edu
J. Phil Gibson
Department of Biology and Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology
University of Oklahoma
jpgibson@ou.edu
Erik Zavrel
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Cornell University
eaz29@cornell.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Laura Y. Lorentzen
Department of Biology
Kean University
llorentz@kean.edu
Youssef Kousa
Department of Biochemstry & Molecular Biology
Michigan State University
kousayou@msu.edu
Erica F. Kosal
Department of Biology
North Carolina State University
efkosal@ncsu.edu
Jacqueline Washington
Department of Biology and Chemistry
Nyack College
jacqueline.washington@nyack.edu
Anne Zayaitz
Department of Biology
Kutztown University
zayaitz@kutztown.edu
Herbert House (rr)
Biology Department
Elon University
househ@elon.edu
Li-hsuan Yang
Department of Education
University of Michigan—Flint
lihsuan@umflint.edu
Benjamin F. Timson
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Missouri State University
bentimson@missouristate.edu
Scott D. Zimmerman
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Missouri State University
scottzimmerman@missouristate.edu
Elizabeth Scharf
Department of Anthropology
University of North Dakota
elizabeth.scharf@und.nodak.edu
Jennifer Y. Anderson
Health Science / Nursing
Brookdale Community College
jyanderson1@mail.brookdalecc.edu
Diane R. Wang
Biology, Plant Breeding and Genetics
Cornell University
drw44@cornell.edu
Ling Chen
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lchen@bmcc.cuny.edu
Jeanne Ting Chowning

Rainier Scholars
jchowning@rainierscholars.org
Richard C. Stewart
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
alec@umd.edu
Ann C. Smith
Office of Undergraduate Studies
University of Maryland
asmith@umd.edu
Patricia A. Shields
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
pshields@umd.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Thomas R. Stabler
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Canisius College
stabler@canisius.edu
Renee Larson
Biology Department
Canisius College
Sherry Ginn
Program in Social Sciences
Rowan-Cabarrus Community College
sherry.ginn@rccc.edu
Elizabeth J. Meinz
Department of Psychology
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
emeinz@siue.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Lisa Marie Rubin
Formulary Management
VA Western New York Healthcare System
Lexpress1982@yahoo.com; Lisa.Rubin@va.gov
Claudia Bode
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis
University of Kansas
bode@ku.edu
Allison Jablonski
Biology Department
University of Lynchburg
jablonski@lynchburg.edu
Frank Bowman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of North Dakota
frank.bowman@und.edu
Brian Tande
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of North Dakota
briantande@mail.und.edu
Stephanie E. August
Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science
Loyola Marymount University
saugust@lmu.edu
Susan Behrens
Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders
Marymount Manhattan College
sbehrens@mmm.edu
Cindy Mercer
Academic Achievement
Marymount Manhattan College
cmercer@mmm.edu
Susan Bandoni Muench
Biology Department
SUNY Geneseo
bandoni@geneseo.edu
Susan B. Chaplin
Department of Biology
University of St. Thomas
sbchaplin@gmail.com
Laura J. Baumgartner
Department of Biology
University of St. Thomas
Christine M. Fleet
Biology Department
Emory & Henry College
cfleet@ehc.edu
Lynn Diener
Biology Department
Mount Mary College
dienerl@mtmary.edu
Patrick S. Market
Department of Soil, Environment, and Atmospheric Sciences
University of Missouri–Columbia
marketp@missouri.edu
Laurie LeBlanc
Chemistry Department
Cuyamaca College
laurie.leblanc@gcccd.edu
Robert Mazalewski
Department of Plant Sciences
University of California at Davis
rlmazalewski@ucdavis.edu
Jonathan Cook
Chemistry Department
Cuyamaca College
Jasmine King
Chemistry Department
Cuyamaca College
Bryan Hains
Department of Community and Leadership Development
University of Kentucky
bryan.hains@uky.edu
Dawn Hains
Independent Educational Consultant

Mark Balschweid
Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education & Communication
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
mbalschweid2@unl.edu
Joy M. Branlund
Department of Physical Science
Southwestern Illinois College
Joy.Branlund@swic.edu
Anne M. Casper
Department of Biology
Eastern Michigan University
anne.casper@emich.edu
Stephen R. Cronin
Department of Biology and Chemistry
Ave Maria University
stephen.cronin@avemaria.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Gordon T. Yee
Department of Chemistry
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
gyee@vt.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Brian Rybarczyk
Graduate School
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
brybar@unc.edu
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Karen Peterson
Human Biology Division
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
kpeterso@fhcrc.org
Susan Evarts
Horticulture
Minnesota Zoological Gardens
sievarts@gmail.com
Alison Krufka
Department of Biological Sciences
Rowan University
krufka@rowan.edu
Chester Wilson
Department of Biology
University of St. Thomas
c9wilson@stthomas.edu
Linda Niedziela
Biology Department
Elon University
lniedziela@elon.edu
Kari A. Mergenhagen
Infectious Disease
James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center
kari.mergenhagen@va.gov
Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Karen M. Aguirre
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
kmaguirr@coastal.edu
Lynne H. Gildensoph
Biology Department
St. Catherine University
lhgildensoph@stkate.edu
Alice M. Stanford
Division of Science and Mathematics
University of the Virgin Islands
astanfo@uvi.edu
Deborah D. Wygal
Biology Department
St. Catherine University
ddwygal@stkate.edu
Elizabeth R. McCain
Biology Department
Muhlenberg College
mccain@muhlenberg.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Ann Henninger
Biology Department
Wartburg College
ann.henninger@wartburg.edu
Karen A. Pinco
Department of Biology
Westfield State College
kpinco@wsc.ma.edu
Wayne Shew (rr)
Department of Biology
Birmingham-Southern College
Troy R. Nash
Department of Biology
Mercer University
nash_tr@mercer.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
David K. Spierer
School of Health Professions
Long Island University–Brooklyn Campus
david.spierer@liu.edu
Sandra Williams
College of Nursing
University of South Alabama–Springhill Campus
Jim Lyttle
School of Business, Public Administration and Information Sciences
Long Island University–Brooklyn Campus
jim.lyttle@liu.edu
Susan Fredstrom
Department of Family Consumer Science
Minnesota State University
susan.fredstrom@mnsu.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Sohum Sohoni
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Oklahoma State University
sohum.sohoni@okstate.edu
Matt Reiten
Technical Staff
GMA Industries
mtreiten@gmail.com
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Kristie DuRei
Political Science Department
University at Buffalo
Wayne Shew (rr)
Department of Biology
Birmingham-Southern College
Mary Celeste Reese
Department of Biological Sciences
Mississippi State University
mcr4@biology.msstate.edu
Barry Chess
Natural Sciences Division
Pasadena City College
bxchess@pasadena.edu
Jessica Hutchison
Biological Sciences
Alfred State University
HutchiJM@alfredstate.edu
Ingolf Gruen
Department of Food Science
University of Missouri
GruenI@missouri.edu
Kim R. Finer
Department of Biological Sciences
Kent State University at Stark
kfiner@kent.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Ed Acheson
Department of Chemistry
Millikin University
eacheson@millikin.edu
Troy D. Wood
Department of Chemistry
University at Buffalo
twood@buffalo.edu
Julia Omarzu
Department of Psychology
Loras College
julia.omarzu@loras.edu
Stephanie Vail
School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Frank Monteleone
Anthropology and Sociology
Houston Community College Southwest
frank.monteleone@hccs.edu
Lisa Marie Rubin
Formulary Management
VA Western New York Healthcare System
Lexpress1982@yahoo.com; Lisa.Rubin@va.gov
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Stephen J. Shawl
Department of Physics and Astronomy
University of Kansas
shawl@ku.edu
Lisa Marie Rubin
Formulary Management
VA Western New York Healthcare System
Lexpress1982@yahoo.com; Lisa.Rubin@va.gov
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Dennis Kingery
Biology Department
Metropolitan Community College
dkingery@mccneb.edu
Susan Nava-Whitehead
Sciences and Education Department
Becker College
susan.whitehead@becker.edu
Joan-Beth Gow
School of Professional Studies
Anna Maria College
jgow@annamaria.edu
Janis Hammer
Animal Science
Animal Behavior Institute
support@animaledu.com
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Thomas A. Cappaert
Department of Physical Education and Sport
Central Michigan University
cappa1ta@cmich.edu
Charlotte R. Zales
Education Department
Moravian College
crzales@moravian.edu
Joseph C. Colosi
Biology Department
DeSales University
jcc0@desales.edu
Catherine Dana Santanello
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
csantan@siue.edu
James A. Hewlett
Science and Technology Department
Finger Lakes Community College
hewletja@flcc.edu
Gerald F. Combs, Jr
Division of Nutritional Sciences
Cornell University
gfc2@cornell.edu
Kate Rittenhouse-Olson
Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences
University at Buffalo
krolson@buffalo.edu
Amy Pettigrew
College of Nursing
University of Cincinnati
amy.pettigrew@uc.edu
Linda Walsh
Psychology Department
University of Northern Iowa
walsh@uni.edu
Kathleen Boje
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
boje@buffalo.edu
Susannah Gal
Department of Biological Sciences
Penn State Harrisburg
sjg5538@psu.edu
Jessie W. Klein
Department of Mathematics and Science
Middlesex Community College
kleinj@middlesex.mass.edu
Ashley Coffelt
Department of Chemistry
Missouri State University
Mark M. Richter
Department of Chemistry
Missouri State University
markrichter@missouristate.edu
Philip Camill
Department of Biology
Bowdoin College
pcamill@bowdoin.edu
Wendy Heck-Grillo
Department of Biology
North Carolina Central University
wheck@nccu.edu
Andrea Novicki
Center for Instructional Technology
Duke University
andrea.novicki@duke.edu
Brian Rybarczyk
Graduate School
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
brybar@unc.edu
Catherine Dana Santanello
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
csantan@siue.edu
Jennifer Rehg
Deparrtment of Anthropology
Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville
jrehg@siue.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Susan Behrens
Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders
Marymount Manhattan College
sbehrens@mmm.edu
Linda Carozza
Communication Science and Disorders
Pace University
lcarozza@pace.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Caren D. Shapiro
Department of Mathematics & Natural Sciences
D’Youville College
shapiroc@dyc.edu
Jennifer Bolognese
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Misti Coronel
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Anita Intorre
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
John S. Bennett
College of Natural and Health Sciences
University of Wisconsin – Parkside
bennettj@uwp.edu
Swamy Anantheswaran
Department of Food Science
Pennsylvania State University
rca3@psu.edu
Martin Kelly
Department of Mathematics & Natural Sciences
D'Youville College
martink@dyc.edu
Stephen C. Nold
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin-Stout
nolds@uwstout.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Anthony C. Steyermark
Department of Biology
University of St. Thomas
acsteyermark@stthomas.edu
Junaid Ahmed Zubairi
Department of Math and Computer Science
SUNY Fredonia
zubairi@cs.fredonia.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Debby Walser-Kuntz
Department of Biology
Carleton College
dwalser@carleton.edu
Sarah Deel
Department of Biology
Carleton College
sdeel@carleton.edu
Susan R. Singer
Department of Biology
Carleton College
ssinger@carleton.edu
Gary M. Fortier
Department of Animal Biotechnology and Conservation
Delaware Valley College
gary.fortier@delval.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Brent J.F. Hill
Biology Department
University of Central Arkansas
bhill@uca.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Alan Cheville
Department of Electrical Engineering
Bucknell University
alan.cheville@bucknell.edu
Misa Scepanovic
Department of Electrical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
Thomas E. Ford
Psychology Department
Western Carolina University
tford@email.wcu.edu
Julia Omarzu
Department of Psychology
Loras College
julia.omarzu@loras.edu
Paula P. Lemons
Division of Biological Sciences
University of Georgia
plemons@uga.edu
Sarah K. Huber
Department of Fisheries Science
The College of William & Mary
skhuber@wm.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Stephanie DeMarco
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Caitlyn Woods
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Jeffrey C. Reist
College of Pharmacy
University of Iowa
jeffrey-reist@uiowa.edu
Christine M. Catney
College of Pharmacy
University of Iowa
christine-catney@uiowa.edu
Karen Altendorf
Sociology Department
Oklahoma State University
Alan Cheville
Department of Electrical Engineering
Bucknell University
alan.cheville@bucknell.edu
Mary Rose Grant
School for Professional Services
Saint Louis University
grantmr@slu.edu
Robin Pals-Rylaarsdam
College of Arts and Sciences
Saint Xavier University
rylaarsdam@sxu.edu
Tangi Mitchell
Biological Sciences
Central Connecticut State University
Cheryl L. Watson
Biological Sciences
Central Connecticut State University
watsonc@ccsu.edu
Kristin B. Vessey
Department of Biological Sciences
Bowling Green State University
Karen Chambers
Department of Psychology & Communicative Disorders
Saint Mary’s College
kchambers@saintmarys.edu
Lindsey May
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin-Stout
Jessica Kotke
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin-Stout
Charles R. Bomar
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin-Stout
bomarc@uwstout.edu
Linda Markowitz
Sociology Department
Southern Illinois University
lmarkow@siue.edu
Catherine Dana Santanello
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
csantan@siue.edu
Laurie A. Parendes
Department of Geosciences
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
lparendes@edinboro.edu
Scott H. Burris
Department of Agricultural Education and Communications
Texas Tech University
scott.burris@ttu.edu
Susan M. Galatowitsch
Water Resources Program
University of Minnesota
galat001@umn.edu
Barbara A. Peichel
Water Resources Program
University of Minnesota
Dayton J. Ford
Pharmaceutical Sciences
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
dford@stlcop.edu
Kari A. Mergenhagen
Infectious Disease
James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center
kari.mergenhagen@va.gov
Doug Knutson
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
knutson.1@osu.edu
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Kari A. Mergenhagen
Infectious Disease
James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center
kari.mergenhagen@va.gov
Nathan Strong
Biological Sciences / Chemistry Department
New Hampshire Technical Institute
nstrong@ccsnh.edu
Doug Knutson
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
knutson.1@osu.edu
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Jessica Dudek
University Honors College
University at Buffalo
jdudek@buffalo.edu
Nigel Marriner
Office of the Registrar
University at Buffalo
nmarrine@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Sarah G. Stonefoot
Department of Art & Art History
Beloit College
stonefos@beloit.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Charles R. Fourtner
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
fourtner@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Nancy A. Schiller
University Libraries / National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
schiller@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Christine M. Catney
College of Pharmacy
University of Iowa
christine-catney@uiowa.edu
Thomas R. Stabler
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Canisius College
stabler@canisius.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Charles R. Fourtner
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
fourtner@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Michael S. Hudecki (rr)
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
Kari A. Mergenhagen
Infectious Disease
James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center
kari.mergenhagen@va.gov
Dayton J. Ford
Pharmaceutical Sciences
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
dford@stlcop.edu
Lauren E. Yaich
Division of Biological and Health Sciences
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
yaich@pitt.edu
David R. Luginbuhl
Mathematics, Information & Life Sciences Directorate
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
david.luginbuhl@afosr.mil
Theresa Hornstein
Biology Department
Lake Superior College
t.hornstein@lsc.edu
Grace A. Wang
Department of Environmental Studies
Huxley College of the Environment
Bellingham, Washington 98225
David L. Ozsvath
Department of Geography/Geology
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
dozsvath@uwsp.edu
Christa Colyer
Department of Chemistry
Wake Forest University
colyercl@wfu.edu
Alan Cheville
Department of Electrical Engineering
Bucknell University
alan.cheville@bucknell.edu
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Claudia Bode
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis
University of Kansas
bode@ku.edu
Alan Gleue
Science (Physics)
Lawrence High School
agleue@usd497.org
Carolyn Pearson
Science Department (Physics)
Bonner Springs High School
pearsonc@usd204.k12.ks.us
Thomas A. Cappaert
Department of Physical Education and Sport
Central Michigan University
cappa1ta@cmich.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Karol P. Rejman
School of Nursing
University at Buffalo
rejman@buffalo.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Paul Welsh
Science Department
Singapore American School
pwelsh@sas.edu.sg
Malati M. Patil
Department of Electrical Engineering
University at Buffalo
Linda L. Tichenor
Biology Department
Aiken Technical College
tichenorl@atc.edu
Christopher T.  Bailey
Division of Natural and Mathematical Sciences
Wells College
cbailey@wells.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Eric Przykuta
Science Department
Lancaster Middle School
eprzykuta@lancaster.wnyric.org
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Sarah G. Stonefoot
Department of Art & Art History
Beloit College
stonefos@beloit.edu
Bruce C. Allen
Physics Department
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Jennifer Hayes-Klosteridis
Enrollment Management and Student Services
George Washington University
jhkloste3@email.gwu.edu
Alease S. Bruce
Department of Clinical Laboratory & Nutritional Sciences
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Alease_Bruce@uml.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Joseph Bieron
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
bieron@canisius.edu
Elizabeth Harper
Biology Department
Monmouth University
eharper@monmouth.edu
Jacinth Maynard
Division of Physical and Computational Sciences
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
jmaynard@lhup.edu
Mary Puterbaugh Mulcahy
Division of Biological and Health Sciences
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
mnp1@exchange.upb.pitt.edu
Daniel Kermick
Division of Biological and Health Sciences
University at Pittsburgh at Bradford
Lynn Austin
Allied Health
Western Kentucky University
lynn.austin@wku.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Albert Titus
Department of Electrical Engineering
University at Buffalo
ahtitus@buffalo.edu
Elizabeth Clark
Department of Biology
Washington University in St. Louis
Lok C. Lew Yan Voon
Department of Physics
Wright State University
lok.lewyanvoon@wright.edu
Graham F. Peaslee
Chemistry Department
Hope College
peaslee@hope.edu
Juliette Lantz
Chemistry Department
Drew University
jlantz@drew.edu
Mary Walczak
Chemistry Department
St. Olaf College
walczak@stolaf.edu
Kathryn L. Rowberg
Department of Chemistry and Physics
Purdue University - Calumet
rowberg@calumet.purdue.edu
Jennifer Nelson
School of Medicine
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Jessie W. Klein
Department of Mathematics and Science
Middlesex Community College
kleinj@middlesex.mass.edu
Kristen L.W. Walton
Department of Biology
Missouri Western State University
kwalton1@missouriwestern.edu
Robin Pals-Rylaarsdam
College of Arts and Sciences
Saint Xavier University
rylaarsdam@sxu.edu
Kelley W. Grorud
Biological Sciences Department
Edgewood College
kgrorud@edgewood.edu
Valerie Nieman
Department of English
North Carolina A&T State University
vgnieman@ncat.edu
Zhi-Jun Liu
Department of Geography
University of North Carolina—Greensboro
z_liu@uncg.edu
Christa Colyer
Department of Chemistry
Wake Forest University
colyercl@wfu.edu
Ann Bisantz
Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering
University at Buffalo
bisantz@buffalo.edu
Amjad Aref
Department of Civil, Structural & Environmental Engineering
University at Buffalo
aaref@buffalo.edu
Alexander Cartwright
Office of the Chancellor
University of Missouri
Michaela A. Gazdik
Biology Department
Ferrum College
mgazdik@ferrum.edu
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Martha Jane Goleman
Pediatrics
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
jane.goleman@nationwidechildrens.org
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Michael S. Langan
General Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Michael.langan@osumc.edu
Allison A. Macerollo
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Allison.macerollo@osumc.edu
Bruce C. Allen
Physics Department
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Doug Knutson
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
knutson.1@osu.edu
Matthew S. Kaufman
Department of Biology
Washington University in St. Louis
Margaret A. Carroll
Department of Biology
Framingham State College
mcarroll@framingham.edu
Jeffrey Scott Coker
Department of Biology
Elon University
jcoker@elon.edu
Jimmie D. Agnew
Science Education
Elon University
agnewj@elon.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Arne Tarnvik
Department of Infectious Diseases
Umea University
arne.tarnvik@infdis.umu.se
Charles R. Bomar
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin-Stout
bomarc@uwstout.edu
Lisa Carloye
Biology Department
Elon University
carloye@elon.edu
Andrea C. Wade
Academic Services
Monroe Community College
awade13@monroecc.edu
Lauren E. Yaich
Division of Biological and Health Sciences
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
yaich@pitt.edu
Joseph Bieron
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
bieron@canisius.edu
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Michael A. Jeannot
Department of Chemistry
St. Cloud State University
mjeannot@stcloudstate.edu
Jennifer Miskowski
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
miskowsk.jenn@uwlax.edu
Anne Galbraith
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
galbrait.anne@uwlax.edu
Sarah K. Huber
Department of Fisheries Science
The College of William & Mary
skhuber@wm.edu
Paula P. Lemons
Division of Biological Sciences
University of Georgia
plemons@uga.edu
David L. Evans
Biology Department
Pennsylvania College of Technology
devans@pct.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Jennifer Lundmark
Department of Biological Sciences
California State University Sacramento
lundmark@csus.edu
Gary M. Fortier
Department of Animal Biotechnology and Conservation
Delaware Valley College
gary.fortier@delval.edu
Patricia Schneider
Biological Sciences and Geology
Queensborough Community College / City University of New York
pschneider@qcc.cuny.edu
Nancy A. Schiller
University Libraries / National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
schiller@buffalo.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Adam M. Boyd
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Randolph K. Larsen, III
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
rklarsen@smcm.edu
Jane Marantz Connor
Psychology Department
Binghamton University
jconnor@binghamton.edu
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Geraldine S. Vaz
Ambulatory Care Department
Jamaica Hospital Medical Center
Janna R. McLean
College of Arts & Sciences
Olivert Nazarene University
jmclean@olivet.edu
Thomas A. Davis
Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
Loras College
tom.davis@loras.edu
Thomas A. Davis
Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
Loras College
tom.davis@loras.edu
John Petersen
Environmental Studies
Oberlin College
john.petersen@oberlin.edu
Nancy London
Environmental Studies Program
Oberlin College
Juanita Constible
Climate and Clean Air Program
Natural Resources Defense Council
jconstible@nrdc.org
Luke Sandro
Science (Biology)
Springboro High School
lsandro@springboro.org
Richard E. Lee, Jr. (rr)
Department of Zoology
Miami University
leere@muohio.edu
Eleonora Del Federico
Department of Mathematics and Science
Pratt Institute
edelfede@pratt.edu
Steven T. Diver
Chemistry Department
University at Buffalo
diver@buffalo.edu
Monika I. Konaklieva
Department of Chemistry
American University
mkonak@american.edu
Richard Ludescher
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
ludescher@aesop.rutgers.edu
William D. Rogers
Department of Biology
Ball State University
wrogers@bsu.edu
Shoshana Tobias
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Scott D. Zimmerman
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Missouri State University
scottzimmerman@missouristate.edu
Mark L. Kuhlmann
Department of Biology
Hartwick College
kuhlmannm@hartwick.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Norris Armstrong
Biology Department
University of Georgia
narmstro@uga.edu
Monika I. Konaklieva
Department of Chemistry
American University
mkonak@american.edu
William D. Rogers
Department of Biology
Ball State University
wrogers@bsu.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Traci E. Morris
Department of Biological Sciences
Binghamton University
Susannah Gal
Department of Biological Sciences
Penn State Harrisburg
sjg5538@psu.edu
Thomas Horvath
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
horvattg@oneonta.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Timothy M. Lutz
Department of Geology and Astronomy
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
tlutz@wcupa.edu
G. Winfield Fairchild
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
wfairchild@wcupa.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Timothy M. Lutz
Department of Geology and Astronomy
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
tlutz@wcupa.edu
Nancy A. Rice
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
nancy.rice@wku.edu
Nancy A. Rice
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
nancy.rice@wku.edu
Bruno Borsari
Biology Department
Winona State University
bborsari@winona.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Kristina Hannam
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
hannam@geneseo.edu
Rodney Hagley
Department of Biology and Marine Biology
University of North Carolina-Wilmington
hagleyr@uncw.edu
Debra L. Stamper
Harvard Medical School
Brigham & Women’s Hospital
dstamper@partners.org
Norris Armstrong
Biology Department
University of Georgia
narmstro@uga.edu
Kristina Hannam
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
hannam@geneseo.edu
Cheryl A. Heinz
Department of Biology
Benedictine University
cheinz@ben.edu
Erin Barley
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
ebarley@sfu.ca
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Jeffrey C. Brunskill
Department of Geography and Geosciences
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania
jbrunski@bloomu.edu
Christopher A. Badurek
Department of Geography and Planning
Appalachian State University
badurekca@appstate.edu
David W. Kelley
Department of Geography
University of St. Thomas
dwkelley@stthomas.edu
Doug M. Post
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
Doug.post@osumc.edu
Doug Knutson
Family Medicine
The Ohio State University College of Medicine
knutson.1@osu.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Norris Armstrong
Biology Department
University of Georgia
narmstro@uga.edu
Terry Platt
Department of Biology
University of Rochester
terry.platt@rochester.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Alan Paul Price
Department of Geography & Geology
University of Wisconsin—Washington County
paul.price@uwc.edu
Elaine M. Schamber
Agronomy Department
Purdue University
Paul A. Hammond
Horticulture Department
Purdue University
James A. Hewlett
Science and Technology Department
Finger Lakes Community College
hewletja@flcc.edu
Antoinette Miller
Psychology Department
Clayton State University
antoinettemiller@clayton.edu
Terry Platt
Department of Biology
University of Rochester
terry.platt@rochester.edu
Antoinette Miller
Psychology Department
Clayton State University
antoinettemiller@clayton.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Kristina Hannam
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
hannam@geneseo.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Nancy M. Boury
Department of Animal Science
Iowa State University
nan1@iastate.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Cheryl D. Davis
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
cheryl.davis@wku.edu
Nancy A. Rice
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
nancy.rice@wku.edu
James A. Hewlett
Science and Technology Department
Finger Lakes Community College
hewletja@flcc.edu
James A. Hewlett
Science and Technology Department
Finger Lakes Community College
hewletja@flcc.edu
James A. Hewlett
Science and Technology Department
Finger Lakes Community College
hewletja@flcc.edu
Lori M. Carris
Department of Plant Pathology
Washington State University
carris@wsu.edu
Nancy L. Jacobson
Biology Department
Ithaca College
jacobson@ithaca.edu
Kristina Hannam
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
hannam@geneseo.edu
Bruno Borsari
Biology Department
Winona State University
bborsari@winona.edu
Thomas Horvath
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
horvattg@oneonta.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Robert H. Grant
Editorial Department
The Scientist
info@the-scientist.com
Erin Barley
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
ebarley@sfu.ca
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Caralyn B. Zehnder
Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences
Georgia College & State University
caralyn.zehnder@gcsu.edu
Cheryl A. Heinz
Department of Biology
Benedictine University
cheinz@ben.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Courtney E. Quinn
Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education and Communication
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
courtney_quinn@yahoo.com
John E. Quinn
School of Natural Resources
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
jquinn2@unl.edu
Otto Sanchez
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Ontario Institute of Technology
otto.sanchez@uoit.ca
Wayne Seames
Chemical Engineering
University of North Dakota
wayneseames@mail.und.edu
MeghanMarie Fowler-Finn
Division of Student Transportation
Office of the State Superintendent of Education
meghanmarie.fowler-finn@dc.gov
Kari E. Benson
Biology Department
Lynchburg College
benson@lynchburg.edu
Lisa Marie Rubin
Formulary Management
VA Western New York Healthcare System
Lexpress1982@yahoo.com; Lisa.Rubin@va.gov
Susan B. Chaplin
Department of Biology
University of St. Thomas
sbchaplin@gmail.com
LeLeng To Issacs (rr)
Biological Sciences
Goucher College
leto@goucher.edu
Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Geraldine S. Vaz
Ambulatory Care Department
Jamaica Hospital Medical Center
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Susan M. DeSimone
Biology Department
Middlebury College
sdesimon@middlebury.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
William Morgan
Department of Biology
The College of Wooster
wmorgan@wooster.edu
Dean Fraga
Department of Biology
The College of Wooster
dfraga@wooster.edu
Bruno Borsari
Biology Department
Winona State University
bborsari@winona.edu
William D. Rogers
Department of Biology
Ball State University
wrogers@bsu.edu
Thomas Horvath
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
horvattg@oneonta.edu
Jeffri C. Bohlscheid
Food Group Technical Center
J. R. Simplot
jeff.bohlscheid@simplot.com
Frank J. Dinan
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Canisius College
dinan@canisius.edu
Bruno Borsari
Biology Department
Winona State University
bborsari@winona.edu
Debra A. Meuler
Biology Department
Cardinal Stritch University
dameuler@stritch.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Kristine N. Hopfensperger
Department of Biological Sciences
Northern Kentucky University
hopfenspek1@nku.edu
David J. Grise

Oso Bay Educational Consulting
dave_grise@yahoo.com
Katayoun Chamany
Natural Sciences & Mathematics
Eugene Lang College/ New School University
chamanyk@newschool.edu
Matthew P. Rowe
Department of Biology
University of Oklahoma
mprowe@ou.edu
Monica E. Hartmann
Economics Department
University of St. Thomas
mehartmann@stthomas.edu
Robert J. Werner
Geography Department
University of St. Thomas
rjwerner@stthomas.edu
Jennifer Feenstra
Department of Psychology
Northwestern College
jfeenstr@nwciowa.edu
Rosemary H. Ford
Biology Department
Washington College
rford2@washcoll.edu
Ling Chen
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lchen@bmcc.cuny.edu
Richard Hendrix
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
rhendrix@bmcc.cuny.edu
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Md Rumi Shammin
Environmental Studies
Oberlin College
rumi.shammin@oberlin.edu
John Petersen
Environmental Studies
Oberlin College
john.petersen@oberlin.edu
Jordan F. Suter
Economics & Environmental Studies
Oberlin College
jordan.suter@oberlin.edu
Ling Chen
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lchen@bmcc.cuny.edu
Diane R. Wang
Biology, Plant Breeding and Genetics
Cornell University
drw44@cornell.edu
Jennifer Y. Anderson
Health Science / Nursing
Brookdale Community College
jyanderson1@mail.brookdalecc.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Kathleen G. Brown
Nursing/Massage Therapy
CUNY Queensborough Community College
kcapogrosso36@tigermail.qcc.cuny.edu
Sharon S. Ellerton
Biological Sciences and Geology
CUNY Queensborough Community College
sellerton@qcc.cuny.edu
Andrea Bixler
Biology Department
Clarke University
andrea.bixler@clarke.edu
Kristen N. Hausmann
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
knwhitin@coastal.edu
Karen M. Aguirre
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
kmaguirr@coastal.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Ling Chen
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lchen@bmcc.cuny.edu
Lalitha S. Jayant
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
ljayant@bmcc.cuny.edu
Debby Walser-Kuntz
Department of Biology
Carleton College
dwalser@carleton.edu
Troy R. Nash
Department of Biology
Mercer University
nash_tr@mercer.edu
Nancy A. Rice
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
nancy.rice@wku.edu
Joan-Beth Gow
School of Professional Studies
Anna Maria College
jgow@annamaria.edu
Susan Nava-Whitehead
Sciences and Education Department
Becker College
susan.whitehead@becker.edu
Kerri W. Augusto
Psychology and Mental Health Counseling
Becker College
kerri.augusto@becker.edu
R. Deborah Overath
Department of Life Sciences
Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
deborah.overath@tamucc.edu
Hannah L. Rusch
Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology
University of Minnesota
rusch051@umn.edu
Jim A. Perry
Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology
University of Minnesota
Jperry@umn.edu
Norris Armstrong
Biology Department
University of Georgia
narmstro@uga.edu
Jianli Zhou
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
zhjianli@uga.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Deborah Engelen-Eigles
Department of Sociology / Women and Gender Studies
Century College
debbie.engelen@century.edu
Steven L. Telleen
Biology Department
San Joaquin Delta College
stelleen@deltacollege.edu
Tamar L. Goulet
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
tlgoulet@olemiss.edu
Jeffrey A. Steinmetz
Department of Biology
Francis Marion University
jsteinmetz@fmarion.edu
Reed M. Perkins
Department of Environmental Science
Queens University of Charlotte
perkinsr@queens.edu
Darlene A. Mitrano
Molecular Biology
Christopher Newport University
darlene.mitrano@cnu.edu
William D. Rogers
Department of Biology
Ball State University
wrogers@bsu.edu
Susan Bandoni Muench
Biology Department
SUNY Geneseo
bandoni@geneseo.edu
Dustin J. Eno
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Kathrin F. Stanger-Hall
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
ksh@uga.edu
Jennifer Merriam
Biology Department
SUNY Orange
jennifer.merriam@sunyorange.edu
Ruth Ann Greuling
Office of the Provost
Northern New Mexico College
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
Keith K. Schillo
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
schillkk@oneonta.edu
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Paula Cobos
School of Natural Sciences / Biological Sciences
Kean University
Cheylena Williams
School of Natural Sciences / Biological Sciences
Kean University
David L. Evans
Biology Department
Pennsylvania College of Technology
devans@pct.edu
Jeffrey J. Byrd
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
jjbyrd@smcm.edu
Samantha L. Elliott
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
slelliott@smcm.edu
Luanna B. Prevost
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
lprevost@plantbio.uga.edu
Paula P. Lemons
Division of Biological Sciences
University of Georgia
plemons@uga.edu
Joann B. Powell
Department of Biological Sciences
Clark Atlanta University
jpowell@cau.edu
Elethia W. Tillman
Department of Biology
Spelman College
etillman@spelman.edu
Lynn Diener
Biology Department
Mount Mary College
dienerl@mtmary.edu
Dianne W. York

Siemens Diagnostic Healthcare
dwyork12@yahoo.com
Jamie G. McMinn
Psychology Department
Westminster College
mcminnjg@westminster.edu
Dana S. Dunn
Psychology Department
Moravian College
dunn@moravian.edu
Keith K. Schillo
Biology Department
SUNY College at Oneonta
schillkk@oneonta.edu
David F. Dean (rr)
Department of Biology
Spring Hill College
ddean@shc.edu
Ashley L. Madern
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Michael D. Hood
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Jeffrey C. Paul, Jr.
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Ronald L. Carnell
Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences
University of Washington Bothell
Rebecca M. Price
Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences
University of Washington Bothell
becca.price@uwb.edu
Jennifer Bolognese
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Misti Coronel
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Anita Intorre
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Giselle A. McCallum
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Selena Kim
Psychology Department
Kalamazoo College
Siu-Lu  Tan
Psychology Department
Kalamazoo College
Thomas E. Ford
Psychology Department
Western Carolina University
tford@email.wcu.edu
Miriam Segura-Totten
Department of Biology
University of North Georgia
mstotten@ung.edu
Richard Cowlishaw
Biology Department
Southwestern College
Richard.Cowlishaw@sckans.edu
Charles Hunter
Biology Department
Southwestern College
Charles.Hunter@sckans.edu
Jason Coy
History Department
College of Charleston
coyj@cofc.edu
Michael Tessmer
Chemistry Department
Southwestern College
mtessmer@sckans.edu
Leslie G. Wooten
Biology Department
Tallahassee Community College
wootenl@tcc.fl.edu
Leslie G. Wooten
Biology Department
Tallahassee Community College
wootenl@tcc.fl.edu
Christopher Rump
Department of Applied Statistics and Operations Research
Bowling Green State University
cmrump@bgsu.edu
Yelena Aronova-Tiuntseva
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Christopher Rump
Department of Applied Statistics and Operations Research
Bowling Green State University
cmrump@bgsu.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Carmen A. Petrick
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
cap08@questu.ca
Leslie G. Wooten
Biology Department
Tallahassee Community College
wootenl@tcc.fl.edu
Jeffrey J. Byrd
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
jjbyrd@smcm.edu
Samantha L. Elliott
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
slelliott@smcm.edu
Jeffrey J. Byrd
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
jjbyrd@smcm.edu
Samantha L. Elliott
Biology Department
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
slelliott@smcm.edu
Tonya Laakko Train
Biology Department
Elon University
ttrain@elon.edu
Robin Pals-Rylaarsdam
College of Arts and Sciences
Saint Xavier University
rylaarsdam@sxu.edu
Jeffri C. Bohlscheid
Food Group Technical Center
J. R. Simplot
jeff.bohlscheid@simplot.com
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Rosalind H. Groenewoud
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Rosalind H. Groenewoud
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Terry Platt
Department of Biology
University of Rochester
terry.platt@rochester.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Anthony J. Creaco
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
acreaco@bmcc.cuny.edu
Owen A. Meyers
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
omeyers@bmcc.cuny.edu
David A. Krauss
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
dkrauss@bmcc.cuny.edu
Joyce A. Shaw
School of Arts and Sciences
Endicott College
jshaw@endicott.edu
Kevin M. Bonney
Liberal Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
New York University
kevin.bonney@nyu.edu
John C. Withey
Biological Sciences
The Evergreen State College
witheyj@evergreen.edu
Christina M. Kennedy
Development by Design Program
The Nature Conservancy
ckennedy@tnc.org
Robert Leaf
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
The University of Southern Mississippi
Robert.Leaf@usm.edu
Brian R. Murphy
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Virginia Tech
murphybr@vt.edu
Kevin Pyatt
College of Computer & Information Sciences
Regis University
kpyatt@regis.edu
Jacqueline Coomes
Department of Mathematics
Eastern Washington University
jcoomes@ewu.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Paula P. Lemons
Division of Biological Sciences
University of Georgia
plemons@uga.edu
Edwin H. Price
Department of Physical and Life Sciences
Nevada State College
Edwin.price@nsc.nevada.edu
Kyla Flanagan
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Calgary
kmflanag@ucalgary.ca
Lynn Diener
Biology Department
Mount Mary College
dienerl@mtmary.edu
Sarah A. Wojiski
Genomic Education
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine
sarah.wojiski@jax.org
Brian Rybarczyk
Graduate School
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
brybar@unc.edu
Robin Pals-Rylaarsdam
College of Arts and Sciences
Saint Xavier University
rylaarsdam@sxu.edu
Monica L. Tischler
Department of Biological Science
Bendectine University
mtischler@ben.edu
J. Phil Gibson
Department of Biology and Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology
University of Oklahoma
jpgibson@ou.edu
Joyce A. Shaw
School of Arts and Sciences
Endicott College
jshaw@endicott.edu
Dylan P. Macuk
Department of Biology
Bradley University
William J. Moser, Jr.
Department of Biology
Bradley University
Kaleigh A. Tockes
Department of Biology
Bradley University
Keith A. Johnson
Department of Biology
Bradley University
kajohnso@bradley.edu
Nancy M. Boury
Department of Animal Science
Iowa State University
nan1@iastate.edu
Nancy M. Boury
Department of Animal Science
Iowa State University
nan1@iastate.edu
Loren B. Byrne
Department of Biology, Marine Biology, and Environmental Science
Roger Williams University
lbyrne@rwu.edu
Allison Black
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Maureen Leonard (rr)
Biology
Mount Mary University
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Betty Jo Chitester
Chemistry Department
Gannon University
chitester@gannon.edu
Weslene T. Tallmadge
Chemistry Department
Gannon University
tallmadge@gannon.edu
Karen M. Aguirre
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
kmaguirr@coastal.edu
Peggy Brickman
Department of Plant Biology
University of Georgia
brickman@uga.edu
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Naowarat (Ann) Cheeptham
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University
ncheeptham@tru.ca
Laura B. Regassa
Department of Biology
Georgia Southern University
lregassa@georgiasouthern.edu
Laura B. Regassa
Department of Biology
Georgia Southern University
lregassa@georgiasouthern.edu
Naowarat (Ann) Cheeptham
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University
ncheeptham@tru.ca
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Naowarat (Ann) Cheeptham
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University
ncheeptham@tru.ca
Laura B. Regassa
Department of Biology
Georgia Southern University
lregassa@georgiasouthern.edu
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
David L. Boose
Biology Department
Gonzaga University
boose@gonzaga.edu
Kyla Flanagan
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Calgary
kmflanag@ucalgary.ca
Jalene M. LaMontagne
Department of Biological Science
DePaul University
jlamont1@depaul.edu
Anastasia P. Maines
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Colorado at Boulder
anastasia.maines@colorado.edu
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Kevin M. Bonney
Liberal Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
New York University
kevin.bonney@nyu.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Kuei-Chiu Chen
Senior Lecturer, Premedical Program
Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar
kuc2005@qatar-med.cornell.edu
Debra A. Meuler
Biology Department
Cardinal Stritch University
dameuler@stritch.edu
Robyn R. Oster
National Student Exchange Program
University of Maine at Presque Isle
Bonnie S. Wood
Department of Math and Science
University of Maine at Presque Isle
bonnie.s.wood@umpi.edu
Justin F. Shaffer
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
jshaffer@mines.edu
Nancy M. Boury
Department of Animal Science
Iowa State University
nan1@iastate.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Stephanie L. Luster-Teasley
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
North Carolina A&T State University
luster@ncat.edu
Rebecca L. Ives
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
Michigan State University
ivesrebe@msu.edu
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Gabrielle Gangemi
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
Taylor Kinsley
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
Ryan Doyle
Department of Biology
Villanova College
Matthew Heslin
Department of Biology
Villanova College
Michael Keller
Department of Biology
Villanova College
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Jennifer E. Schaefer
Department of Biology
College of Saint Benedict / Saint. John’s University
jschaefer@csbsju.edu
Parks Collins
Natural Science
Mitchell Community College
pcollins@mitchellcc.edu
Mary Walczak
Chemistry Department
St. Olaf College
walczak@stolaf.edu
Juliette Lantz
Chemistry Department
Drew University
jlantz@drew.edu
Geffrey F. Stopper
Department of Biology
Sacred Heart University
stopperg@sacredheart.edu
Andrew G. Lazowski
Department of Mathematics
Sacred Heart University
lazowskia@sacredheart.edu
Maureen Knabb
Department of Biology
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
mknabb@wcupa.edu
Courtney E. Meyet
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
cmeye002@ucr.edu
Richard J. Hooley
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
richard.hooley@ucr.edu
Andrew E. Lyman-Buttler

Thomas Edison High School
LB@mpls.k12.mn.us
John T. Ripple
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Stephen E. Marcaccio
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Daniel R. Sherman
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Dorothy P. Debbie
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
dpd22@cornell.edu
Kristy J. Wilson
School of Mathematics and Sciences
Marian University
kjwilson@marian.edu
Kristy J. Wilson
School of Mathematics and Sciences
Marian University
kjwilson@marian.edu
Tonya Laakko Train
Biology Department
Elon University
ttrain@elon.edu
Constance M. Soja
Department of Geology
Colgate University
csoja@colgate.edu
Deborah Huerta
Cooley Science Library
Colgate University
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Andrew C. Lydeard
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Susan D. Hester
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
University of Arizona
sdhester@email.arizona.edu
Joshua D. Hartman
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Kelly Theel
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Giovanni Casotti
Department of Biology
West Chester University
gcasotti@wcupa.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Morgan Gray
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management
University of California, Berkeley
morgan.gray@berkeley.edu
Mario K. Klip
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management
University of California, Berkeley
Alex R. Krohn
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management
University of California, Berkeley
Ryan A. Marsh
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management
University of California, Berkeley
Leslie A. McGinnis
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management
University of California, Berkeley
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Wayne O. Hatch
Department of Biology
Utah State University Eastern
wayne.hatch@usu.edu
Dan Hua
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Virginia Tech
huad@vt.edu
Brian R. Murphy
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Virginia Tech
murphybr@vt.edu
Michelle D. Klopfer
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Virginia Tech
mklopfer@vt.edu
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
William H. Cliff
Department of Biology
Niagara University
bcliff@niagara.edu
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
William H. Cliff
Department of Biology
Niagara University
bcliff@niagara.edu
Cassy L. Cozine
Department of Biology
Coe College
ccozine@coe.edu
Emily C. Gripka
Department of Natural Sciences & Mathematics
University of St. Mary
Jennifer Feenstra
Department of Psychology
Northwestern College
jfeenstr@nwciowa.edu
Jennifer M. Dechaine
Department of Biological Sciences / Department of Science Education
Central Washington University
dechaine@cwu.edu
James E. Johnson
Department of Biological Sciences
Central Washington University
jjohnson@cwu.edu
Conrad Toepfer
Division of Mathematics & Natural Sciences
Brescia University
bioprof44@gmail.com
Carly N. Jordan
Department of Biological Sciences
The George Washington University
cnjordan@gwu.edu
Elizabeth A. Flaherty
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
Purdue University
eflaher@purdue.edu
Jonathan F. Prather
Department of Zoology and Physiology
University of Wyoming
Jonathan.Prather@uwyo.edu
Catherine Dana Santanello
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
csantan@siue.edu
Scott J. Bergman
Department of Pharmacy Practice
Southern Illinois University
scbergm@siue.edu
Kevin M. Bonney
Liberal Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
New York University
kevin.bonney@nyu.edu
Alisa J. Petree
Medical Laboratory Technician Program
McLennan Community College
apetree@mclennan.edu
Sondra A. Dubowsky
Biology Department
McLennan Community College
sdubowsky@mclennan.edu
Mary A. Sides
Biology Department
McLennan Community College
msides@mclennan.edu
Bruce C. Palmquist
Department of Physics / Department of Science Education
Central Washington University
palmquis@cwu.edu
Justin F. Shaffer
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
jshaffer@mines.edu
Lynn B. DeSanto
Department of Science
Lackawanna College
desantol@lackawanna.edu
Miranda D. Redmond
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Colorado
MirandaRedmond@gmail.com
Nichole N. Barger
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Colorado
nichole.barger@colorado.edu
Harry M. Zollars
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
hmzollars@gmail.com
Catherine Dana Santanello
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
csantan@siue.edu
Marcelo J. Nieto
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
mnieto@siue.edu
Merle K. Heidemann
College of Natural Science, Emeritus
Michigan State University
heidema2@msu.edu
Peter J.T. White
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
pwhite@msu.edu
James J. Smith
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
jimsmith@msu.edu
Giovanni Casotti
Department of Biology
West Chester University
gcasotti@wcupa.edu
Ann T. Massey
Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing
Emory University
ann.massey@emory.edu
Frank Miskevich
Biology Department
University of Michigan-Flint
frankmis@umflint.edu
J. Phil Gibson
Department of Biology and Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology
University of Oklahoma
jpgibson@ou.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Richard C. Stewart
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
alec@umd.edu
Daniel C. Stein
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
dcstein@umd.edu
Kevin S. McIver
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
kmciver@umd.edu
John Buchner
Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
University of Maryland
jbuchner@umd.edu
Ann C. Smith
Office of Undergraduate Studies
University of Maryland
asmith@umd.edu
Joshua D. Hartman
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Joshua D. Hartman
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Merle K. Heidemann
College of Natural Science, Emeritus
Michigan State University
heidema2@msu.edu
Peter J.T. White
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
pwhite@msu.edu
James J. Smith
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
jimsmith@msu.edu
Antoinette Miller
Psychology Department
Clayton State University
antoinettemiller@clayton.edu
Joshua D. Hartman
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Narcisa G. Pricope
Geography and Geology
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
pricopen@uncw.edu
Andrea E. Gaughan
Geography and Geosciences
University of Louisville
ae.gaughan@louisville.edu
Susan C. Caplow
Carolina Population Center
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
scaplow@email.unc.edu
Kelly M. Cobourn
Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation
Virginia Tech
kellyc13@vt.edu
Edward R. Landa
Department of Environmental Science and Technology
University of Maryland, College Park
erlanda@umd.edu
Gail E. Wagner
Department of Anthropology and Associated Faculty, Environment and Sustainability Program
University of South Carolina, Columbia
gail.wagner@sc.edu
Margaret M. Larrousse
Department of Natural Science
Mount St. Mary College
margaret.larrousse@msmc.edu
Joni Seaton James Charles
Department of Finance and Economics
Texas State University
jc18@txstate.edu
Michael C. Young
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
myoun010@ucr.edu@ucr.edu
Richard J. Hooley
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
richard.hooley@ucr.edu
Brahmadeo Dewprashad
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
bdewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Kim R. Finer
Department of Biological Sciences
Kent State University at Stark
kfiner@kent.edu
Heather K.L. Harden
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Michael L. Foley
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Rachel A. Poon
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Eric J. Herrera
Department of Chemistry
California State University, Sacramento
Andrew T. Johnson
Department of Psychology and Sociology
Park University
ajohnson@park.edu
Amanda R. Laurenceau
Department of Psychology and Sociology
Park University
Nickolas E. Millas
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Nathalie Musey
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Emily Duwan
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Christopher J. Cheng
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences
North Carolina State University
Clinton Stevenson
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences
North Carolina State University
cdsteve3@ncsu.edu
Karobi Moitra
Department of Biology
Trinity Washington University
MoitraK@trinitydc.edu
William J. Hoese
Biological Sciences
California State University Fullerton
bhoese@fullerton.edu
Judith R. Gibber
Biological Sciences
Columbia University
jrg43@columbia.edu
Bonnie S. Wood
Department of Math and Science
University of Maine at Presque Isle
bonnie.s.wood@umpi.edu
Jorge A. Santiago-Blay
Department of Paleobiology
National Museum of Natural History / Smithsonian Institution
blayj@si.edu
Rachael A. Lancor
Department of Chemistry, Geoscience, & Physics
Edgewood College
rlancor@edgewood.edu
William Yee
College of Arts and Science
New York University
Kevin M. Bonney
Liberal Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
New York University
kevin.bonney@nyu.edu
Kyla Flanagan
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Calgary
kmflanag@ucalgary.ca
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Dawn R. Tanner
Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology
University of Minnesota
tann0042@umn.edu
Jim A. Perry
Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology
University of Minnesota
Jperry@umn.edu
Andrea Nicholas
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
University of California, Irvine
acnichol@uci.edu
Isabella Villano

San Joaquin High School
Briana M. Peele
Science Department
Tri-County Technical College
klocbm@g.cofc.edu
John S. Peters
Department of Biology
College of Charleston
petersj@cofc.edu
Mary Ann L. McLean
Natural and Mathematical Sciences
St. Mary’s University
maryann.mclean@stmu.ca
Gary T. Grothman
Natural and Mathematical Sciences
St. Mary’s University
gary.grothman@stmu.ca
Thomas T. Yates
Soil Science
University of Saskatchewan
tom.yates@usask.ca
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
David S. Kiefer
Department of Family Medicine
University of Wisconsin-Rock County
david.kiefer@fammed.wisc.edu
Katharine C.  Kelsey
Department of Biology
University of Alaska Anchorage
kathyckelsey@gmail.com
Emily M. Nullet
School of Nursing
Quinnipiac University
emily.nullet@quinnipiac.edu
Marissa L. Hayes
School of Nursing
Quinnipiac University
Rebecca M. Cordani
School of Nursing
Quinnipiac University
Jessalyn A. Myers
School of Nursing
Quinnipiac University
Carol R. Connery
School of Nursing
Quinnipiac University
carol.connery@quinnipiac.edu
Karobi Moitra
Department of Biology
Trinity Washington University
MoitraK@trinitydc.edu
Sandra L. Cooke
Department of Biology
High Point University
scooke@highpoint.edu
Alicia C. Lloyd
Environmental Resources and Policy
Southern Illinois University
alicia.c.lloyd@gmail.com
Adelle D. Monteblanco
Department of Sociology
University of Colorado
adelle.monteblanco@colorado.edu
Silvia Secchi
Department of Geography and Environmental Resources
Southern Illinois University
ssecchi@siu.edu
Matthew P. Rowe
Department of Biology
University of Oklahoma
mprowe@ou.edu
Troy R. Nash
Department of Biology
Mercer University
nash_tr@mercer.edu
Stephanie L. Luster-Teasley
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
North Carolina A&T State University
luster@ncat.edu
Janie G. Locklear
Department of Civil Engineering
North Carolina A&T State University
Niva S. King
Department of Civil Engineering
North Carolina A&T State University
J. Phil Gibson
Department of Biology and Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology
University of Oklahoma
jpgibson@ou.edu
Tracie Y. Hudson
Department of Biology
Malcolm X College
thudson@ccc.edu
Suzanne M.  Deschênes
Department of Biology
Sacred Heart University
descheness@sacredheart.edu
Rosemary M. Danaher
Department of Mathematics
Sacred Heart University
danaherr@sacredheart.edu
Hema Gopalakrishnan
Department of Mathematics
Sacred Heart University
gopalakrishnanh@sacredheart.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Kevin M. Bonney
Liberal Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
New York University
kevin.bonney@nyu.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Carly N. Jordan
Department of Biological Sciences
The George Washington University
cnjordan@gwu.edu
Glenna M. Malcolm
Department of Biology
Pennsylvania State University
gmm193@psu.edu
Bruce C. Palmquist
Department of Physics / Department of Science Education
Central Washington University
palmquis@cwu.edu
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
James A. Carr
Department of Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
james.carr@ttu.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Joshua D. Hartman
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Fred B. Schnee
Department of Biology
Loras College
fred.schnee@loras.edu
Andrea Bixler
Biology Department
Clarke University
andrea.bixler@clarke.edu
Beth A. Carle
Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Electromechanical Engineering Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology
carle@mail.rit.edu
Sarah R. Sletten
Department of Biomedical Sciences
UND School of Medicine and Health Sciences
sarah.sletten@und.edu
Daniel R. Albert
Department of Chemistry
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
dalbert@uwsp.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Michael L. Allen
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Washington State University
mlfa@wsu.edu
Eric Ribbens
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Celeste A. Leander
Department of Biology & Zoology
The University of British Columbia
cleander@interchange.ubc.ca
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Nicole F. Magill
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Tatiana N. Bliss
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Fleur M. Ferro
Department of Biology
Community College of Denver
fleur.ferro@ccd.edu
Jamie S. Hughes
Department of Psychology
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
hughes_j@utpb.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Kristine A. Garner
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
kristie.garner@uafs.edu
Brandy C. Ree
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
brandy.ree@uafs.edu
Katayoun Chamany
Natural Sciences & Mathematics
Eugene Lang College/ New School University
chamanyk@newschool.edu
Gabriel D. McNett
Department of Biology and Environmental Science
Westminster College
gabe.mcnett@westminster-mo.edu
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Reinaldo Perez
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Florida International University
Andres Arango
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Florida International University
Kathleen S. Rein
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Florida International University
reink@fiu.edu
Karen S. Huffman
Biology
Erie Community College
huffmank@ecc.edu
Sarah A. Wojiski
Genomic Education
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine
sarah.wojiski@jax.org
Marlee B. Marsh
Department of Biology
Columbia College
mmarsh@columbiasc.edu
Derek Dube
Department of Biology
University of Saint Joseph
ddube@usj.edu
Linda M. Iadarola
Department of Biological Sciences
Quinnipiac University
Linda.Chicoine@quinnipiac.edu
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
Linda M. Iadarola
Department of Biological Sciences
Quinnipiac University
Linda.Chicoine@quinnipiac.edu
Derek Dube
Department of Biology
University of Saint Joseph
ddube@usj.edu
Vandana A. Gudi
Department of Science
Robert Morgan Educational Center
MrsGudi@DadeSchools.net
Kathleen S. Rein
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Florida International University
reink@fiu.edu
Jeneissy Comas
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Florida International University
jcoma001@fiu.edu
Nicole M. Anthony
Biological Sciences
Toronto District School Board
nicole.anthony@tdsb.on.ca
Cathy Silver Key
Department of Biology
North Carolina Central University
ckey@nccu.edu
Parks Collins
Natural Science
Mitchell Community College
pcollins@mitchellcc.edu
Elizabeth J. Meinz
Department of Psychology
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
emeinz@siue.edu
Richard T. Brundage
Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Engineering
St. Cloud State University
Ann Bisantz
Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering
University at Buffalo
bisantz@buffalo.edu
Kylee Grenis

Tri-County Health Department
kgrenis@gmail.com
Laurel C. Cepero
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
laurel.cepero@du.edu
Mayra C. Vidal
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
mayra.vidal@du.edu
Ashley E. Rhodes
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
aek6613@ksu.edu
Adam J. Kleinshmit
Department of Biology and Earth Sciences
University of Dubuque
akleinschmit@dbq.edu
Merle K. Heidemann
College of Natural Science, Emeritus
Michigan State University
heidema2@msu.edu
Peter J.T. White
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
pwhite@msu.edu
James J. Smith
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
jimsmith@msu.edu
Scott Turner
Department of Behavioral & Social Sciences
University of Montevallo
turners@montevallo.edu
Pamela Kalas
Departments of Zoology and Botany
The University of British Columbia
kalas@zoology.ubc.ca
Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello
Department of Biological Sciences
Marshall University
harrison@marshall.edu
Jessica L. Shiltz
Department of Epidemiology
West Virgina University
Robert E. Hughes
Department of Mathematics
Marshall University
Roger L. Estep
Department of Mathematics
Marshall University
Anna B. Mummert
Department of Mathematics
Marshall University
mummerta@marshall.edu
Cheryld L. Emmons
Division of Biology
Alfred University
emmonsc@alfred.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
E. Dale Broder
Department of Biology
Colorado State University
EDaleBroder@gmail.com
Corey A. Handelsman
Department of Biology
Colorado State University
CHandelsman@gmail.com
Cameron K. Ghalambor
Department of Biology
Colorado State University
Cameron1@colostate.edu
Lisa M. Angeloni
Department of Biology
Colorado State University
Angeloni@colostate.edu
Elizabeth A. Flaherty
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
Purdue University
eflaher@purdue.edu
Carolyn A. Eckrich
Department of Zoology and Physiology
University of Wyoming
ceckrich@uwyo.edu
Merav Ben-David
Department of Zoology and Physiology
University of Wyoming
bendavid@uwyo.edu
Justin A. Pruneski
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Heidelberg University
jprunesk@heidelberg.edu
Lalitha S. Jayant
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
ljayant@bmcc.cuny.edu
Christine Priano
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
cpriano@bmcc.cuny.edu
Sarah N. Salm
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
ssalm@bmcc.cuny.edu
Lauren N. Goodwyn
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
lgoodwyn@bmcc.cuny.edu
Kathryn M. Burleson
Department of Biology
Hamline University
kburleson01@hamline.edu
Dongfang Wang
Department of Biology
Spelman College
dwang@spelman.edu
Glenna M. Malcolm
Department of Biology
Pennsylvania State University
gmm193@psu.edu
Yolanda H. Chen
Department of Plant and Soil Science
The University of Vermont
yolanda.chen@uvm.edu
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
Andrew M. Petzold
Center for Learning Innovation
University of Minnesota Rochester
petzo002@umn.edu
Jennifer Wollschlager
Center for Learning Innovation
University of Minnesota Rochester
jwollsch@umn.edu
Robert L. Dunbar
Center for Learning Innovation
University of Minnesota Rochester
dunb0011@r.umn.edu
Kristen H. Short
Department of Biology
Manchester University
khshort@manchester.edu
Akasha M. Faist
Department of Animal and Range Sciences
New Mexico State University
afaist@nmsu.edu
Jaclyn E. McLean
Natural and Social Sciences
Bowling Green State University, Firelands College
jmclean@bgsu.edu
Ram S. Veerapaneni
Natural and Social Sciences
Bowling Green State University, Firelands College
ramv@bgsu.edu
Jun Liang
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
Jliang@bmcc.cuny.edu
William J. Rice
Simons Electron Microscopy Center
New York Structural Biology Center
rice@nysbc.org
Susan E. Gass
Environmental Science Program
Dalhousie University
susan.gass@dal.ca
Laurie S. Eberhardt
Department of Biology
Valparaiso University
laurie.eberhardt@valpo.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Karobi Moitra
Department of Biology
Trinity Washington University
MoitraK@trinitydc.edu
Lior M. Burko
School of Science and Technology
Georgia Gwinnett College
lburko@ggc.edu
Claudia Stein
Department of Biology and Tyson Research Center
Washington University in St. Louis
cstein@wustl.edu
Eleanor A. Pardini
Environmental Studies
Washington University in St. Louis
epardini@wustl.edu
Kendra S. Mell
University Medical Center
Texas Tech University
Kendra.mell@ttu.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Elizabeth A. Flaherty
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
Purdue University
eflaher@purdue.edu
Carolyn A. Eckrich
Department of Zoology and Physiology
University of Wyoming
ceckrich@uwyo.edu
Merav Ben-David
Department of Zoology and Physiology
University of Wyoming
bendavid@uwyo.edu
Christine R. Dahlin
Department of Biology
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
cdahlin@pitt.edu
Alyssa M. Gleichsner
Biological Sciences
State University of New York College at Plattsburgh
aglei002@plattsburgh.edu
Elizabeth A. Flaherty
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
Purdue University
eflaher@purdue.edu
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Kelsey L. Logan
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
Charlie W. Zhao
School of Medicine
Yale University
Weige.zhao@yale.edu
Jasper C.H. Wong

Western University
Tom L. Haffie (rr)
Department of Biology
Western University
thaffie@uwo.ca
Rebecca K. Wilson
Department of Science
Farmington High School
rebecca.ks.wilson@gmail.com
Thomas A. Davis
Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
Loras College
tom.davis@loras.edu
Andrea Bixler
Biology Department
Clarke University
andrea.bixler@clarke.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Amanda J. Chunco
Department of Environmental Studies
Elon University
achunco@elon.edu
Jennifer K. Uno
Department of Biology
Elon University
juno@elon.edu
Ryan T. Neumann
Kinesiology & Sports Management
Texas Tech University
Collin J. Quinn
Kinesiology & Sports Management
Texas Tech University
Brittany A. Whitaker
Pre-Professional Health
Texas Tech University
Sean T. Woyton
Kinesiology & Sports Management
Texas Tech University
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Jessica L. Allen
Department of Science and Biotechnology
Berkeley City College
jlallen17@gmail.com
Crystal E. Nyitray

California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences
Crystal.Nyitray@qb3.org
Tejal A. Desai
Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences
University of California San Francisco
tejal.desai@ucsf.edu
Miquella G. Chavez
Research Triangle MRSEC
Duke University
Miquella.Chavez@duke.edu
Nadia Sellami
Undergraduate Research Center - Sciences
University of California Los Angeles
nsellami@college.ucla.edu
Julie A. Morris
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
julie.a.morris@du.edu
Sheela Vemu
Department of Mathematics and Sciences
Waubonsee Community College
svemu@waubonsee.edu
Linda C. Fuselier
Department of Biology
University of Louisville
linda.fuselier@louisville.edu
Natalie G. Farny
Department of Biology and Biotechnology
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
nfarny@wpi.edu
Qinxia Li
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Fisk University
qli@fisk.edu
Xinyao Yang
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
Howsikan Kugathasan
Department of Mathematics
Fisk University
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Chaya Gopalan
Departments of Applied Health, Primary Care and Health Systems
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
cgopala@siue.edu
William B. Kist


william.kist.wk@gmail.com
Brynn F. Welch
Department of Philosophy
University of Alabama at Birmingham
bwelch@uab.edu
Christine M. Fleet
Biology Department
Emory & Henry College
cfleet@ehc.edu
Milton T. Drott
School of Integrative Plant Science, Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section
Cornell University
mtd66@cornell.edu
Mark A. Sarvary
Investigative Biology Teaching Laboratories
Cornell University
mas245@cornell.edu
Manisha Nigam
Department of Chemistry
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
nigam@pitt.edu
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Brennan Smith
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
brennans@uidaho.edu
Maria-Elena Conin
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Lea C. George
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Joshua D. Kumin
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Megan M. Emge
Human Development and Family Studies
Texas Tech University
Zenobia N. Okwunwanne
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Raphinos Uragu
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Johnna L. Yowell
Nursing
Texas Tech University
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Jane P. Sheldon
Department of Behavioral Sciences
University of Michigan—Dearborn
jsheldon@umich.edu
Susana M. Peciña
Department of Behavioral Sciences
University of Michigan—Dearborn
pesu@umich.edu
Teresa C. Weglarz
Biological Sciences
University of Wisconsin—Fox Valley
teresa.weglarz@uwc.edu
Gary H.  Laverty
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Delaware
laverty@udel.edu
Angela K. Hartsock
Department of Biology
University of Akron, Wayne College
ahartsock1@uakron.edu
Nienke E. van Houten
Faculty of Health Sciences
Simon Fraser University
nvanhout@sfu.ca
Khadijah I. Makky
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Marquette University
khadijah.makky@marquette.edu
Audra A. Kramer
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Marquette University
Justin F. Shaffer
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
jshaffer@mines.edu
Sha Sun
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology
University of California, Irvine
shasun@uci.edu
Gary L. Patterson
Department of Biology
Utah State University--Tooele
gary.patterson@usu.edu
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
Catherine E. LePrevost
Department of Applied Ecology
North Carolina State University
celeprev@ncsu.edu
Courtney L. McGinnis
Department of Biological Sciences
Quinnipiac University
Courtney.McGinnis@quinnipiac.edu
Karen K. Bernd
Department of Biology
Davidson College
kabernd@davidson.edu
Cindy D. Hauser
Department of Chemistry
Davidson College
cihauser@davidson.edu
Kristie L. Foley
Social Sciences and Health Policy
Wake Forest School of Medicine
kfoley@wakehealth.edu
Mariela Cruz Calderón
Life Sciences
Quest University
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
Kathryn A. Phillips
Department of Biological Sciences
Quinnipiac University
kate.phillips@quinnipiac.edu
Maura O. Stevenson
Department of Biological Sciences
Quinnipiac University
Maura.Stevenson@quinnipiac.edu
Qinxia Li
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Fisk University
qli@fisk.edu
Xinyao Yang
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
Lauren S. Gollahon
Department of Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
lauren.gollahon@ttu.edu
Robert Ortiz
Department of Science and Mathematics
Lansing Community College
bortizmd@aol.com
Sunil Nityanand
Department of Science and Mathematics
Lansing Community College
nityanas@lcc.edu
Orianna Carter
Biology Department
Ohio University Southern
cartero@ohio.edu
Stephanie J. Toering Peters
Department of Biology
Wartburg College
stephanie.toering@wartburg.edu
Amy B. Dounay
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Colorado College
amy.dounay@coloradocollege.edu
Lori L. Driscoll
Department of Psychology
Colorado College
ldriscoll@coloradocollege.edu
Phoebe M. Blessing
Department of Psychology
Colorado College
Hallie M. Comfort
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Colorado College
Joshua M. Mares

Colorado College
Charlie W. Zhao
School of Medicine
Yale University
Weige.zhao@yale.edu
Kevin Xo

Western University
Tom L. Haffie (rr)
Department of Biology
Western University
thaffie@uwo.ca
Joan-Beth Gow
School of Professional Studies
Anna Maria College
jgow@annamaria.edu
Conrad Toepfer
Division of Mathematics & Natural Sciences
Brescia University
bioprof44@gmail.com
Giovanni Casotti
Department of Biology
West Chester University
gcasotti@wcupa.edu
Christian Angeles
Ayala School of Biological Sciences
University of California, Irvine
Isabella Villano

San Joaquin High School
Andrea Nicholas
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
University of California, Irvine
acnichol@uci.edu
Justin A. Pruneski
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Heidelberg University
jprunesk@heidelberg.edu
Kristen H. Short
Department of Biology
Manchester University
khshort@manchester.edu
Michelle M. Homan
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering
Gannon University
homan001@gannon.edu
Grace A. Farber
Department of Biological Sciences
University of the Sciences
g.farber@usciences.edu
Amy T. Hark
Biology Department
Muhlenberg College
amyhark@muhlenberg.edu
Joan-Beth Gow
School of Professional Studies
Anna Maria College
jgow@annamaria.edu
Lisa A. Carpino
Department of Psychology
Anna Maria College
lcarpino@annamaria.edu
Abigail R. Wilson
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
abigailw@k-state.edu
Ashley E. Rhodes
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
aek6613@ksu.edu
Timothy G. Rozell
Animal Sciences and Industry
Kansas State University
trozell@k-state.edu
Jennifer Jackson
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
jjackson@coastal.edu
Karen M. Aguirre
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
kmaguirr@coastal.edu
Dan Johnson
Biology Department
Wake Forest University
johnsoad@wfu.edu
Adam J. Kleinshmit
Department of Biology and Earth Sciences
University of Dubuque
akleinschmit@dbq.edu
Sandra J. Connelly
Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences
Rochester Institute of Technology
sandra.connelly@rit.edu
Patricia J. Moore
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
pjmoore@uga.edu
Chantilly A. Apollon
Division of Math and Science
Holy Names University
apollon@hnu.edu
David J. Grise

Oso Bay Educational Consulting
dave_grise@yahoo.com
Kylee Grenis

Tri-County Health Department
kgrenis@gmail.com
Whitley R. Lehto
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
lehtowhi@gmail.com
Shannon M. Murphy
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
shannon.m.murphy@du.edu
Mayra C. Vidal
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
mayra.vidal@du.edu
Robin M. Tinghitella
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
robin.tinghitella@du.edu
Michael E. Ryan
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
University at Buffalo
meryan@buffalo.edu
Jane P. Sheldon
Department of Behavioral Sciences
University of Michigan—Dearborn
jsheldon@umich.edu
Danielle Balaghi
Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education
Michigan State University
balaghid@msu.edu
Kathleen Boje
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
boje@buffalo.edu
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Karin Gastreich
Biology Department
Avila University
karin.gastreich@avila.edu
Christine A. Lai
Business Department
Buffalo State College
laica@buffalostate.edu
Julio C. Rivera, Jr.
Department of Geography and Earth Science
Carthage College
julio@carthage.edu
Philip Camill
Department of Biology
Bowdoin College
pcamill@bowdoin.edu
Darlene Panvini
Biology Department
Belmont University
darlene.panvinid@belmont.edu
Yunqiu (Daniel) Wang
Department of Biology
University of Miami
yunqiu@miami.edu
Andrew T. Johnson
Department of Psychology and Sociology
Park University
ajohnson@park.edu
Anna M. Jähn
Department of Psychology and Sociology
Park University
anna.jaehn@park.edu
Kathy Gallucci
Biology Department
Elon University
gallucci@elon.edu
Celeste A. Leander
Department of Biology & Zoology
The University of British Columbia
cleander@interchange.ubc.ca
Pamela Kalas
Departments of Zoology and Botany
The University of British Columbia
kalas@zoology.ubc.ca
Kim R. Finer
Department of Biological Sciences
Kent State University at Stark
kfiner@kent.edu
Sigrid A. Carle
Biology Department
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
carle@hws.edu
Sigrid A. Carle
Biology Department
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
carle@hws.edu
Justin A. Pruneski
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Heidelberg University
jprunesk@heidelberg.edu
Fiona E. Rawle
Department of Biology
University of Toronto at Mississauga
fiona.rawle@utoronto.ca
Marc Dryer
Department of Biology
University of Toronto at Mississauga
marc.dryer@utoronto.ca
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Kirsten L. Hokeness
Science and Technology Department
Bryant University
khokeness@bryant.edu
Mayra C. Vidal
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
mayra.vidal@du.edu
Kylee Grenis

Tri-County Health Department
kgrenis@gmail.com
Whitley R. Lehto
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
lehtowhi@gmail.com
Robin M. Tinghitella
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
robin.tinghitella@du.edu
Shannon M. Murphy
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
shannon.m.murphy@du.edu
Kathleen A. Nolan
Department of Biology, Health Promotion and Health Care Management
St. Francis College
knolan@sfc.edu
Allen J. Burdowski
Biology and Health Sciences
St. Francis College
Parks Collins
Natural Science
Mitchell Community College
pcollins@mitchellcc.edu
Jane P. Sheldon
Department of Behavioral Sciences
University of Michigan—Dearborn
jsheldon@umich.edu
Diane R. Graves
Department of Psychology
Hood College
oliver@hood.edu
Rachael A. Lancor
Department of Chemistry, Geoscience, & Physics
Edgewood College
rlancor@edgewood.edu
Brian R. Lancor
Department of Chemistry, Geoscience, & Physics
Edgewood College
blancor@edgewood.edu
Tracy J. Terry
Division of Science and Wellness
The University of New Mexico—Valencia Campus
tjterry@unm.edu
Anne G. Rosenwald
Department of Biology
Georgetown University
rosenwaa@georgetown.edu
Suzanne R. Carpenter
Department of Chemistry and Physics
Armstrong State University
suzanne.carpenter@armstrong.edu
Richard H. Wallace
Department of Chemistry and Physics
Armstrong State University
richard.wallace@armstrong.edu
Rebecca L. Hite
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
Texas Tech University
rebecca.hite@ttu.edu
Ann T.S. Taylor
Department of Chemistry
Wabash College
taylora@wabash.edu
Rivka L. Glaser
Department of Biology
Stevenson University
rglaser@stevenson.edu
Erin L. Zimmer
Department of Biology
Lewis University
zimmerer@lewisu.edu
Jasmine D. Edgren
Department of Biology
North Carolina Wesleyan College
Erica F. Kosal
Department of Biology
North Carolina State University
efkosal@ncsu.edu
Jennifer M. Dechaine
Department of Biological Sciences / Department of Science Education
Central Washington University
dechaine@cwu.edu
Angela C. Oviedo
School of Environmental and Sustainability Science
Kean University
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Daniela J. Shebitz
School of Environmental and Sustainability Science
Kean University
dshebitz@kean.edu
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Christopher J. Javornik
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Colorado
christopher.javornik@colorado.edu
Akasha M. Faist
Department of Animal and Range Sciences
New Mexico State University
afaist@nmsu.edu
Brian J. Dingmann
Math, Science and Technology Department
University of Minnesota Crookston
dingm021@crk.umn.edu
Elizabeth C. Leininger
Division of Natural Sciences
New College of Florida
eleininger@ncf.edu
Michael B. Finiguerra
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Connecticut: Avery Point Campus
michael.finiguerra@uconn.edu
Hans G. Dam
Department of Marine Sciences
University of Connecticut
hans.dam@uconn.edu
David E. Avery
Department of Arts and Sciences
Maine Maritime Academy
david.avery@mma.edu
Maryuri Roca
Chemistry Department
Skidmore College
mroca@skidmore.edu
Susan Nava-Whitehead
Sciences and Education Department
Becker College
susan.whitehead@becker.edu
Kerri W. Augusto
Psychology and Mental Health Counseling
Becker College
kerri.augusto@becker.edu
Korryna A. Finkelstein
Undergraduate
Becker College
Shianna Cruz
Undergraduate
Becker College
Joel Clark
Undergraduate
Becker College
Ying Guo
School of Science and Technology
Georgia Gwinnett College
yguo1@ggc.edu
Srikripa Chandrasekaran
Department of Biology
Furman University
srikripa.chandrasekaran@furman.edu
Linda Niedziela
Biology Department
Elon University
lniedziela@elon.edu
Hollie L. Leavitt
Department of Biology
College of Western Idaho
hollieleavitt6@cwi.edu
Monica L. Tischler
Department of Biological Science
Bendectine University
mtischler@ben.edu
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Jody L. Vogelzang
Department of Allied Health Sciences
Grand Valley State University
vogelzjo@gvsu.edu
David W. Kelley
Department of Geography
University of St. Thomas
dwkelley@stthomas.edu
Clyde Freeman Herreid
Department of Biological Sciences
University at Buffalo
herreid@buffalo.edu
Pragathi Balakrishna
Internal Medicine
Orange Park Medical Center
Pragathi.Balakrishna2@hcahealthcare.com
Sary O. Beidas
Internal Medicine
Orange Park Medical Center
Sary.Beidas@hcahealthcare.com
Sriharsha C. Athota
Internal Medicine
Orange Park Medical Center
Sriharsha.Athota2@hcahealthcare.com
Seung G. Yoon
Internal Medicine
Orange Park Medical Center
Seung.Geun@hcahealthcare.com
Mackenzie A. Hahn
School of Nursing
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Hannah C. Schake
Kinesiology and Sport Management
Texas Tech University
Ryan T. Schalles
School of Nursing
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Sarah R. Shioji
School of Nursing
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at Abilene
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Maureen Leonard (rr)
Biology
Mount Mary University
Christine M. Carson
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
CarsonCC@ksu.edu
Casey A. Pennock
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
pennock@ksu.edu
Jason W. Ho
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Scott M. Leighow
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Sylvie Lee
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Kevin Pyatt
College of Computer & Information Sciences
Regis University
kpyatt@regis.edu
Michelle C. Pyatt

Scientific Creations
michelle_pyatt@hotmail.com
Michael I. Rule
National Wildlife Refuge System
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
mike_rule@fws.gov
John G. Cogan
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
The University of Ohio
cogan.1@osu.edu
Emily Hill
Health and Rehabilitation Sciences
The University of Ohio
Henry D. Prange
Medical Sciences Program
Indiana University Bloomington
Nicole D. Tunbridge
Department of Biology
Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Nicole.Tunbridge@kpu.ca
Carol Pollock
Department of Zoology
University of British Columbia
pollock@zoology.ubc.ca
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Brianna S. Nelson
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Kelsey N. Aguirre
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Alee L. Adams
Department of Nutritional Sciences
Texas Tech University
Emily E. Brodbeck
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Katherine A. Kurth
Center for Conservation Medicine
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
Katherine.kurth@tufts.edu
Tomika M. Haller
Center for Conservation Medicine
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
tomikamarie@gmail.com
Annalisa L. Sharkey
Center for Conservation Medicine
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
annalisa.sharkey@gmail.com
Whitley R. Lehto
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
lehtowhi@gmail.com
Shannon M. Murphy
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
shannon.m.murphy@du.edu
Mayra C. Vidal
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
mayra.vidal@du.edu
Robin M. Tinghitella
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Denver
robin.tinghitella@du.edu
George E. Keller
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Samford University
gekeller@samford.edu
Anne Farewell
Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
University of Gothenburg
anne.farewell@cmb.gu.se
Tracie M. Addy
Center for the Integration of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
Lafayette College
addyt@lafayette.edu
Derek Dube
Department of Biology
University of Saint Joseph
ddube@usj.edu
Jonathan O. Nardolilli

Catlilli Games
Catherine Croft

Catlilli Games
Orville C. Paynter

Catlilli Games
Alex J. Sadowski

Catlilli Games
Michael Petersen

Catlilli Games
Rumin Aidun

Catlilli Games
Fred B. Schnee
Department of Biology
Loras College
fred.schnee@loras.edu
Janine M. Idziak
Bioethics Center
Loras College
Janine.Idziak@loras.edu
Jacqueline C. Ruiz Harewood
Mathematics and Natural Sciences
National University
jruiz@nu.edu
Hollie L. Leavitt
Department of Biology
College of Western Idaho
hollieleavitt6@cwi.edu
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Wendy Saltzman
Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
University of California, Riverside
saltzman@ucr.edu
Michael L. Homesley, Jr.
Department of Physiology
North Carolina State University
homesleymichael@gmail.com
Justin A. Pruneski
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Heidelberg University
jprunesk@heidelberg.edu
Enya J. Granados

Heidelberg University
Kaylee M. Wilburn

Heidelberg University
Sarah A. Orlofske
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point
Sarah.Orlofske@uwsp.edu
Justin F. Shaffer
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
jshaffer@mines.edu
Kirsten L. Hokeness
Science and Technology Department
Bryant University
khokeness@bryant.edu
Stephanie Mott
Department of Science and Technology
Bryant University
smott@bryant.edu
Maria P. Chadiarakou
Bioinformatics
National Center for Genome Resources
mhadres@ncgr.org
Anitha Sundararajan
Bioinformatics
National Center for Genome Resources
asundara@ncgr.org
Ingrid E. Lindquist
Health Sciences Center
University of New Mexico
ingrid.e.lindquist@gmail.com
Gabriella A. DeFrancesca

Desert Academy
Madeline Kwicklis

The Masters Program
Drew A. Lighthall

Tierra Encantada
Michèle I. Shuster
Department of Biology
New Mexico State University
mshuster@nmsu.edu
Joann Mudge
Bioinformatics
National Center for Genome Resources
jm@ncgr.org
Brian K. Sato
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
University of California, Irvine
bsato@uci.edu
Eduardo Cruz-Hinojoza
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
University of California, Irvine
Duyen Dinh-Dang
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
University of California, Irvine
David E. Gammon
Department of Biology
Elon University
dgammon@elon.edu
Adam R. Irvine
Biological Sciences
University of Denver
adamirvinesm@gmail.com
Eva S. Horna-Lowell
Biological Sciences
University of Denver
Mathew J. Driscoll
Geography and Natural Sciences
University of Denver
Emily D. Broder
Biological Sciences
University of Denver
e.dale.broder@gmail.com
Noura Farih
College of Human Sciences
Texas Tech University
Lauren T. Lund
College of Human Sciences
Texas Tech University
Sara E. Morgan
College of Arts and Sciences
Texas Tech University
Johnny M. Turner
Family Practice
Texas Physicians Group
jtur0524@gmail.com
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Nathaniel R. Beres
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Heidelberg University
nberes@heidelberg.edu
Kelsie M. Bernot
Department of Biology
North Carolina A&T State University
kmbernot@ncat.edu
Telah A. Wingate
Department of Biology
North Carolina A&T State University
Kiara D. Whitaker
Department of Biology
North Carolina A&T State University
Amber J. Raven
Biological Sciences and Behavioral Neurosciences
St. Edward’s University
Jessica Williamson
Biological Sciences and Behavioral Neurosciences
St. Edward’s University
Raelynn D. Haynes
Biological Sciences
St. Edward’s University
paulad@stedwards.edu
Beth A. Lawrence
Natural Resources and the Environment
University of Connecticut
beth.lawrence@uconn.edu
Christopher R. Field
National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC)
University of Maryland
chrisfield22@gmail.com
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Joseph DeMasi
School of Arts and Sciences
MCPHS University
joe.demasi@mcphs.edu
Matthew J. Van Sant
Department of Agriculture, Biology and Health Sciences
Cameron University
mvansant@cameron.edu
Brett C. Couch
Departments of Botany and Zoology
University of British Columbia
bcouch@mail.ubc.ca
Ashley E. Rhodes
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
aek6613@ksu.edu
Timothy G. Rozell
Animal Sciences and Industry
Kansas State University
trozell@k-state.edu
Abigail R. Wilson
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
abigailw@k-state.edu
Kaitlin A. Pate
Kinesiology and Sports Management
Texas Tech University
Paul M. Acosta
Kinesiology and Sports Management
Texas Tech University
Melinda A. Payne
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
Laura A. Schoenle
Office of Undergraduate Biology
Cornell University
las86@cornell.edu
Cynthia J. Downs
Department of Biology
Hamilton College
cdowns@hamilton.edu
Michele M. Cox
Department of Biology
University of the Virgin Islands
michelle.cox@uvi.edu
Jack F. Eichler
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside
jack.eichler@ucr.edu
Dachin N. Frances
Department of Biology
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
dfrances89@gmail.com
Sanja Hinić-Frlog
Department of Biology
University of Toronto at Mississauga
sanja.hinic.frlog@utoronto.ca
Annie Prud’homme-Genereux
Continuing Studies and Executive Education
Capilano University
anniepg@capilanou.ca
Nora S. Green
Department of Chemistry
Randolph-Macon College
ngreen@rmc.edu
Joan Sharp
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
jsharp@sfu.ca
Erin Barley
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
ebarley@sfu.ca
Kevin K.-W. Lam
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
klamf@sfu.ca
Suraaj Aulakh

Simon Fraser University
suraaj_aulakh@sfu.ca
Allison Cornell
Department of Biological Sciences
Cedar Crest College
Allison.Cornell@cedarcrest.edu
Kathleen A. Fitzpatrick
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
kathleef@sfu.ca
Katherine S. LaCommare
Department of Natural Sciences
University of Michigan—Dearborn
kslacomm@umich.edu
Peter A. Van Zandt
Department of Biology
Birmingham-Southern College
pvanzand@bsc.edu
Willietta Gibson
Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences
Bennett College
wgibson@bennett.edu
Kimberly S. Farah
Applied Forensic Science
Lasell College
kfarah@lasell.edu
Janice P. Wittstrom
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Mount Royal University
jwittstrom@mtroyal.ca
Helen S. Joyner
School of Food Science
University of Idaho
hjoyner@uidaho.edu
Clinton Stevenson
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences
North Carolina State University
cdsteve3@ncsu.edu
Joseph DeMasi
School of Arts and Sciences
MCPHS University
joe.demasi@mcphs.edu
Janet A. De Souza-Hart
School of Arts & Sciences
MCPHS University
janet.hart@mcphs.edu
Patrick R. Field
Department of Biological Sciences
Kean University
pfield@cougar.kean.edu
Diana Colgan
Department of Biology
Kean University
Catherine Potok
Department of Biology
Kean University
Rachel A. Jackson
Department of Biology
Marian University
Kimberly S.C. Vogt
Department of Biology
Marian University
kvogt@marian.edu
Ryan P. Rogers
Department of Sciences
Wentworth Institute of Technology
rogersr2@wit.edu
Joseph D. Shih
Natural Sciences and Mathematics
University of Saint Mary
Shih429@stmary.edu
Annette W. Neuman
Department of Chemistry
Oxford College of Emory University
annette.neuman@emory.edu
Betty Jo Chitester
Chemistry Department
Gannon University
chitester@gannon.edu
Weslene T. Tallmadge
Chemistry Department
Gannon University
tallmadge@gannon.edu
Thomas E. Hynd
Biology Department
James Madison University
hyndte@jmu.edu
Elizabeth V. Berkeley
Department of Biology and Earth Science
Otterbein University
eberkeley@otterbein.edu
Janet C. Daniel
Biology Department
James Madison University
danie2jc@jmu.edu
Justin W. Brown
Biology Department
James Madison University
brown3jw@jmu.edu
Bisi T. Velayudhan
Biology Department
James Madison University
velayubt@jmu.edu
Krista E. Slemmons
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
kslemmon@uwsp.edu
Carolyn L. Danna
Department of Biology
Stevenson University
cdanna@stevenson.edu
Janna R. Willoughby
School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences
Auburn University
jwilloughby@auburn.edu
Avril M. Harder
Department of Biological Sciences
Purdue University
harder@purdue.edu
Jaqueline M. Doyle
Department of Biological Sciences
Towson University
jdoyle@towson.edu
Anneke M. Metz
Medical/Dental Education Preparatory Program (MEDPREP)
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
ametz@siumed.edu
Michael L. Allen
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Washington State University
mlfa@wsu.edu
Eric J. Herrera
Department of Chemistry
California State University, Sacramento
Linda M. Roberts
Department of Chemistry
California State University, Sacramento
robertslm@csus.edu
Jun Liang
Science Department
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
Jliang@bmcc.cuny.edu
Avril M. Harder
Department of Biological Sciences
Purdue University
harder@purdue.edu
Janna R. Willoughby
School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences
Auburn University
jwilloughby@auburn.edu
Jaqueline M. Doyle
Department of Biological Sciences
Towson University
jdoyle@towson.edu
Parks Collins
Natural Science
Mitchell Community College
pcollins@mitchellcc.edu
Jason Macrander
Department of Biology
Florida Southern College
jmacrander@flsouthern.edu
Diana Colgan
Department of Biology
Kean University
Wajid Mirza
Department of Biology
Kean University
Laura Y. Lorentzen
Department of Biology
Kean University
llorentz@kean.edu
Kristie Reilly
Department of Biology
Kean University
kreilly@kean.edu
Dorothy P. Debbie
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
dpd22@cornell.edu
Susan E. Gass
Environmental Science Program
Dalhousie University
susan.gass@dal.ca
Danielle Scriven
Marine Affairs Program
Dalhousie University
danielle.scriven@dal.ca
Christine H. Terry
Department of Biology
University of Lynchburg
terry.c@lynchburg.edu
Erin J. Friedman
Department of Biology
University of Lynchburg
friedman.e@lynchburg.edu
Susan A. Weiner
Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences
Roosevelt University
sweiner02@roosevelt.edu
Cheuk Hin Li

Pierre Elliott Trudeau High School
mail.alvinli@gmail.com
Anthony J. Creaco
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
acreaco@bmcc.cuny.edu
David A. Krauss
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
dkrauss@bmcc.cuny.edu
Kelly L. Brackett
JMCRS Animal Resources
The Jackson Laboratory
kelly.brackett@jax.org
Gareth R. Howell
Research
The Jackson Laboratory
Gareth.howell@jax.org
Charles G. Wray
Genomic Education
The Jackson Laboratory
Charles.wray@jax.org
Sarah A. Wojiski
Genomic Education
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine
sarah.wojiski@jax.org
Rebecca T. Garlinger
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Patrick K. Mitrano-Towers
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Kevin S. Innella
Department of Biology
Villanova University
Philip J. Stephens
Department of Biology
Villanova University
phil.stephens@villanova.edu
Hollie L. Leavitt
Department of Biology
College of Western Idaho
hollieleavitt6@cwi.edu
Kathleen A. Nolan
Department of Biology, Health Promotion and Health Care Management
St. Francis College
knolan@sfc.edu
Jean Yockey
Department of Nursing
University of South Dakota
Jean.Yockey@usd.edu
Julia M. Dais
Department of Biology
Okanagan College
jdais@okanagan.bc.ca
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Rachel L. Rossetti
Department of Mathematics
Agnes Scott College
rrossetti@agnesscott.edu
Arne K. Christensen
Department of Biology
Westfield State University
achristensen@westfield.ma.edu
Joan-Beth Gow
School of Professional Studies
Anna Maria College
jgow@annamaria.edu
Andrea M.-K. Bierema
Center for Integrative Studies in General Science, Department of Integrative Biology
Michigan State University
abierema@msu.edu
Karen M. Aguirre
Department of Biology
Coastal Carolina University
kmaguirr@coastal.edu
Jolanta Skalska


jskalska@gmail.com
Ann L. Parkinson
School of Health and Sport Sciences
University of the Sunshine Coast
aparkins@usc.edu.au
Nicole B. Reinke
School of Health and Sport Sciences
University of the Sunshine Coast
nreinke@usc.edu.au
M. May Zhang
School of Pharmacy
University of Connecticut
ming.zhang@uconn.edu
Maria E. Latta
School of Pharmacy
University of Connecticut
maria.latta@uconn.edu
Jody L. Vogelzang
Department of Allied Health Sciences
Grand Valley State University
vogelzjo@gvsu.edu
Elizabeth L. MacQuillan
Allied Health Sciences
Grand Valley State University
macquile@gvsu.edu
Janna E. Pacey
Allied Health Sciences
Grand Valley State University
paceyj@gvsu.edu
Geraldine J. Terry
Kirkhof College of Nursing
Grand Valley State University
terryg@gvsu.edu
Jeffery A. Trytko
Office of the Vice-Provost of Health
Grand Valley State University
trytkoj@gvsu.edu
Marie E. VanderKooi
Department of Nursing
Grand Valley State University
vandema1@gvsu.edu
Ashley E. Rhodes
Division of Biology
Kansas State University
aek6613@ksu.edu
Timothy G. Rozell
Animal Sciences and Industry
Kansas State University
trozell@k-state.edu
Merle K. Heidemann
College of Natural Science, Emeritus
Michigan State University
heidema2@msu.edu
Mike S. Taylor
Department of Biology
Southeast Missouri State University
mtaylor@semo.edu
Amanda Storm
Department of Biology
Western Carolina University
arstorm@email.wcu.edu
Cassie Dresser-Briggs
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
cdbriggs@msu.edu
Alexa Warwick
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
Michigan State University
awarwick@msu.edu
Peter J.T. White
Lyman Briggs College
Michigan State University
pwhite@msu.edu
Nora S. Green
Department of Chemistry
Randolph-Macon College
ngreen@rmc.edu
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Susan Bandoni Muench
Biology Department
SUNY Geneseo
bandoni@geneseo.edu
Gokhan Hacisalihoglu
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
gokhan.h@famu.edu
Courtenay C. Strickland

C. Strickland Consulting
cstrickland@cstricklandconsulting.com
William B. Kist


william.kist.wk@gmail.com
Kyle Smith
School of Nursing
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
kylesmith_68@hotmail.com
Andrea Fentem
Department of Psychiatry
Washington University in St Louis
afentem718@gmail.com
Chaya Gopalan
Departments of Applied Health, Primary Care and Health Systems
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
cgopala@siue.edu
Nora S. Green
Department of Chemistry
Randolph-Macon College
ngreen@rmc.edu
Sheri L. Boyce
Department of Biological Sciences
Messiah College
sboyce@messiah.edu
Julia A. Emerson
Department of Biology
Amherst College
jemerson@amherst.edu
Andrew E. Emerson

Five Foot Studios
andrew.eemerson@gmail.com
Melissa R. Eslinger
Department of Chemistry and Life Science
United States Military Academy
melissa.eslinger@westpoint.edu
Ryan E. Rodriguez
Department of Chemistry and Life Science
United States Military Academy
ryan.rodriguez@westpoint.edu
Jonathan W. Roginski
Mathematical Sciences, Network Science Center
United States Military Academy
jonathan.roginski@westpoint.edu
Adela M. Acosta
Department of Food Science and Technology
Zamorano University
aacosta@zamorano.edu
P. Logan Mounce
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech Universtiy
Breanna N. Harris
Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
breanna.n.harris@ttu.edu
David M. Zuckerman
Department of Biology
Iona College
dzuckerman@iona.edu
Mehron S. Dhillon

University of California, Irvine
Daniel Na

University of California, Irvine
Christopher R. Kawata

University of California, Irvine
Jacelyn Swede

University of California, Irvine
Parth N. Patel

University of California, Irvine
Angelika F. Ringor

University of California, Irvine
Joshua Chu

University of California, Irvine
Andrea Nicholas
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
University of California, Irvine
acnichol@uci.edu
Catherine S. Haslag
Department of Chemistry
Riverland Community College
catherine.haslag@riverland.edu
Suann Yang
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
yang@geneseo.edu
Travis J. Bailey
Department of Biology
SUNY Geneseo
baileyt@geneseo.edu
Michael J. Wagner
Department of Biology
Muhlenberg College
John Hanna
Department of Biology
Muhlenberg College
Allison.Cornell@cedarcrest.edu
Amy T. Hark
Biology Department
Muhlenberg College
amyhark@muhlenberg.edu

Abstract

We are a recipient of a 2004 National Dissemination grant from the National Science Foundation’s Division of Undergraduate Education and has been cited as a source for model case studies by the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science


Objectives

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Keywords

2004 National Dissemination grant, National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education, NSF, National Science Digital Library, NSDL, American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, National Research Council, NRC, Biology2010

Topical Areas

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Educational Level

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Format

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Type / Methods

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Language

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Subject Headings

Agriculture  |   Agriculture  |   Analytical Chemistry  |   Civil Engineering  |   Climatology  |   Bioinformatics  |   Biology (General)  |   Anthropology  |   Atmospheric Science  |   Biology (General)  |   Anthropology  |   Atmospheric Science  |   Anthropology  |   Paleontology  |   Bioinformatics  |   Aquaculture  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Computer Science  |   Veterinary Science  |   Agriculture  |   Sociology  |   Anthropology  |   Astronomy  |   Analytical Chemistry  |   Analytical Chemistry  |   Bioinformatics  |   Microbiology  |   Forestry  |   Biochemistry  |   test  |   test2  |   test2  |   test 999  |   test 777  |   Ecology  |   Atmospheric Science  |   Aquaculture  |   Biotechnology  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aquaculture  |   Anthropology  |   Industrial Engineering  |   GIS  |   Biology (General)  |   Inorganic Chemistry  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Chemistry (General)  |   Earth Science  |   Engineering (General)  |   Business / Management Science  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Cell Biology  |   Climatology  |   Communication Science  |   Civil Engineering  |   Biology (General)  |   Climatology  |   Environmental Engineering  |   Earth Science  |   Biochemistry  |   Atmospheric Science  |   Biomedical Engineering  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Bioinformatics  |   Atmospheric Science  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   Earth Science  |   Earth Science  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Chemical Engineering  |   Computer Science  |   Biology (General)  |   Communication Science  |   Civil Engineering  |   Civil Engineering  |   Biomedical Engineering  |   Dentistry  |   Civil Engineering  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Aquaculture  |   Economics  |   Ecology  |   Earth Science  |   Earth Science  |   Economics  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   Bioinformatics  |   Earth Science  |   Anthropology  |   Anthropology  |   Biochemistry  |   Medicine (General)  |   Veterinary Science  |   Pharmacology  |   Biology (General)  |   Ecology  |   Astronomy  |   Biology (General)  |   Physiology  |   Ecology  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Economics  |   Ecology  |   Economics  |   Dentistry  |   Ecology  |   Oceanography  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   Earth Science  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Analytical Chemistry  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   web20  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Biology (General)  |   Computer Science  |   Electrical Engineering  |   Biomedical Engineering  |   Astronomy  |   Anthropology  |   Biology (General)  |   Physiology  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Physiology  |   Astronomy  |   Organic Chemistry  |   Biochemistry  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Veterinary Science  |   Medicinal Chemistry  |   Biochemistry  |   Organic Chemistry  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Veterinary Science  |   Astronomy  |   Physiology  |   Ecology  |   Environmental Science  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Ecology  |   Astronomy  |   Biology (General)  |   Biochemistry  |   Nutrition  |   Anatomy  |   Biology (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Ecology  |   Science (General)  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Ecology  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Ecology  |   Biology (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Biochemistry  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Science (General)  |   Environmental Science  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Ecology  |   Sociology  |   Psychology  |   Psychology  |   Psychology  |   Psychology  |   Biochemistry  |   Microbiology  |   Public Health  |   Biochemistry  |   Chemistry (General)  |   Environmental Science  |   Chemistry (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Chemistry (General)  |   Aerospace Engineering  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Microbiology  |   Public Health  |   Biology (General)  |   Science (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Geology  |   Natural Hazards  |   Earth Science  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Physiology  |   Medicine (General)  |   Environmental Science  |   Ecology  |   Biology (General)  |   Environmental Science  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Biology (General)  |   Natural Resource Management  |   Anthropology  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Anatomy  |   Physiology  |   Anatomy  |   Environmental Science  |   Earth Science  |   Physiology  |   Biochemistry  |   Nutrition  |   Physiology  |   Anthropology  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Paleontology  |   Anatomy  |   Limnology  |   Environmental Science  |   Earth Science  |   Paleontology  |   Psychology  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Nursing  |   Biology (General)  |   Biochemistry  |   Cell Biology  |   Genetics / Heredity  |   Astronomy  |   Biology (General)  |   Science (General)  |   Public Health  |   Journalism  |   Physiology  |   Neuroscience  |   Psychology  |   Biology (General)  |   Statistics  |   Physiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Physiology  |   Nutrition  |   Organic Chemistry  |   Ecology  |   Environmental Science  |   Earth Science  |   Physiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Ecology  |   Environmental Science  |   Natural Resource Management  |   Environmental Science  |   Public Health  |   Biotechnology  |   Genetics / Heredity  |   Bioinformatics  |   Food Science / Technology  |   Molecular Biology  |   Anatomy  |   Physiology  |   Sports Science  |   Anthropology  |   Forensic Science  |   Journalism  |   Chemistry (General)  |   Food Science / Technology  |   Ecology  |   Environmental Science  |   Wildlife Management  |   Journalism  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine 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Food Science / Technology  |   Public Health  |   Nursing  |   Epidemiology  |   Microbiology  |   Cell Biology  |   Biology (General)  |   Molecular Biology  |   Genetics / Heredity  |   Biology (General)  |   Cell Biology  |   Molecular Biology  |   Biotechnology  |   Nutrition  |   Agriculture  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Genetics / Heredity  |   Physiology  |   Forensic Science  |   Food Science / Technology  |   Biology (General)  |   Physiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Public Health  |   Sports Science  |   Nutrition  |   Biology (General)  |   Statistics  |   Epidemiology  |   Public Health  |   Ecology  |   Environmental Science  |   Journalism  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Public Health  |   Nursing  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Sociology  |   Microbiology  |   Molecular Biology  |   Food Science / Technology  |   Biotechnology  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Biology (General)  |   Genetics / 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Molecular Biology  |   Biochemistry  |   Physiology  |   Neuroscience  |   Epidemiology  |   Microbiology  |   Pharmacy / Pharmacology  |   Public Health  |   Botany / Plant Science  |   Anthropology  |   Economics  |   Physiology  |   Medicine (General)  |   Communication Science  |   Psychology  |   Nursing  |   Teacher Education  |   Physiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Medicine (General)  |   Biology (General)  |   Microbiology  |   Public Health  |   Physiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Microbiology  |   Nursing  |   Public Health  |   Biology (General)  |   Food Science / Technology  |   Business / Management Science  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Ecology  |   Genetics / Heredity  |   Microbiology  |   Biology (General)  |   Science (General)  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Biology (General)  |   Science (General)  |   Science Education  |   Teacher Education  |   Evolutionary Biology  |   Biology (General)  |   Science (General)  |   Science Education  |   Teacher 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Date Posted

3/5/2010

Teaching Notes

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Teaching notes are intended to help teachers select and adopt a case. They typically include a summary of the case, teaching objectives, information about the intended audience, details about how the case may be taught, and a list of references and resources.

Videos

The following video(s) are recommended for use in association with this case study.

  • Popped Secret: The Mysterious Origin of Corn hhmi/
    This video tells the story of the genetic changes involved in the transformation of a wild grass called teosinte into corn. Running time: 17:51 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive, 2015.
  • A Decision to Branch Out
    This video explains the use of the scientific method to investigate the genetic changes behind maize domestication. Running time: 5:41 min. Created by Dongfang Wang for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • mRNA Processing
    This video covers the basic steps in mRNA processing including addition of the 5’ methylated guanine cap, the poly-A tail, and intron splicing. Running time: 2:24 min. Virtual Cell Animation Collection, produced by the World Wide Web Instructional Committee at North Dakota State University, 2005.
  • mRNA Splicing
    This video covers the mechanism of RNA splicing, discussing the role of the spliceosome, characteristics of intron boundaries, and formation of the lariat. Running time: 2:55 min. Virtual Cell Animation Collection, produced by the World Wide Web Instructional Committee at North Dakota State University, 2005.
  • RNA Splicing
    This video reiterates the previous one, but also further defines introns and exons, and shows multiple introns being spliced from the same pre-mRNA. Running time: 1:37 min. Produced by the DNA Learning Center, 2012.
  • Monoclonal Antibody Production HD Animation
    This video describes the relationship between an antibody and antigen, and explains how monoclonal antibodies are produced. It sets the stage for understanding how ALD403, the drug used to treat migraines, blocks CGRP. Running time: 1:37 min.
  • Meiosis (Animation) hhmi/
    Meiosis, the form of cell division unique to egg and sperm production, sets the stage for sex determination by creating sperm that carry either an X or a Y sex chromosome. But what is it about the X or Y that determines sex? The animation presented in this video connects meiosis and sex determination. Running time: 5:53 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Y Chromosome (Animation) hhmi/
    The Y chromosome has been likened to a hall of mirrors because its sequence contains many sections that appear to be palindromes. These palindromes provide a clue to some interesting events that may have occurred during the course of the chromosome's evolution. Running time: 2:46 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Scientific Method Made Easy
    This video is a good refresher on the scientific method and is particularly valuable in its comparisons to how a criminal case is discussed in a courtroom, its discussion of the self-correcting nature of the scientific method, and its description of what happens after a hypothesis is supported (peer reviewed publication, development of a theory). Running time: 9:16 min.
  • Scientific Method
    An alternative to the above, this video also provides a recommended overview of the scientific method. Running time: 4:15 min. Produced by BrainPOP.
  • What Can We Learn from a Fossil?
    Using the example of a fish and a hominin, this video describes in simple terms what types of evidence can be learned about long-extinct species based only on fossils. It also goes into more depth on one example of scientists learning about the physiology of an extinct animal. Running time: 5:55 min. Created by Andrea Bixler for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Animation: Pocket Mouse Predation hhmi/
    This short animation shows the different visibility of light and dark mice to predators in different environments. The dark morph is more vulnerable on light sandy desert, and the light morph on dark lava rock. Running time: 0:20 sec. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Pocket Mouse Evolution hhmi/
    This short simulation shows the spread of a favorable mutation through a population. Even a small selective advantage can lead to a rapid evolution of a population. Running time: 1:05 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animated Tutorial: BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function hhmi/
    This self-paced animated tutorial (Click and Learn) supports the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science and describes how understanding the structure of the BCR-ABL kinase led to the development of an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It provides an example of how advances in molecular biology, structural biology, and DNA sequencing have revolutionized the treatment of certain types of cancer. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL hhmi/
    This short animation explains the mechanism of the the drug Gleevec and how it binds to and inactivates BCR-ABL, a mutant kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. Running time: 3:31 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL hhmi/
    This animation describes the mechanism of the drug, dasatinib. Dasatinib is used to treat Gleevec resistant CML. Running time: 2:14 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec hhmi/
    This animation shows how the drug Gleevec is designed to interfere with the stimulation of growth in leukemia cells. Running time: 1:04 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec hhmi/
    This animation shows how the drug Gleevec is designed to interfere with the stimulation of growth in leukemia cells. Running time: 1:04 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL hhmi/
    This animation describes the mechanism of the drug, dasatinib. Dasatinib is used to treat Gleevec resistant CML. Running time: 2:14 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL hhmi/
    This animation explains the mechanism of the the drug Gleevec and how it binds to and inactivates BCR-ABL, a mutant kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. Running time: 3:31 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animated Tutorial: BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function hhmi/
    This self-paced animated tutorial (Click and Learn) supports the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science and describes how understanding the structure of the BCR-ABL kinase led to the development of an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It provides an example of how advances in molecular biology, structural biology, and DNA sequencing have revolutionized the treatment of certain types of cancer. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Lecture: Cancer As a Genetic Disease hhmi/
    Lecture from the 2013 HHMI Holiday Lecture Series. Dr. Sawyers presents an overview of cancer biology and describes how understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in a type of cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia, resulted in the development of Gleevec, one of the first targeted cancer drugs. Running time: 58:33 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Lecture: Cancer As a Genetic Disease hhmi/
    Lecture from the 2013 HHMI Holiday Lecture Series. Dr. Sawyers presents an overview of cancer biology and describes how understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in a type of cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia, resulted in the development of Gleevec, one of the first targeted cancer drugs. Running time: 58:33 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Genetics of Bitter Taste Perception hhmi/
    In this 50-minute lecture, Dr. Michael Campbell discusses how humans perceive the taste of the chemical PTC. With Dr. Sarah Tishkoff, he fields questions about the evolution of taste perception and scientific career choices. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Biology of Skin Color hhmi/
    In this short video, Penn State University anthropologist Dr. Nina Jablonski walks us through the evidence that the different shades of skin color among human populations arose as adaptations to the intensity of ultraviolet radiation in different parts of the world. Running time: 18:58 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Threat of Tuberculosis
    PBS affiliates WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc., have produced a powerful short (5 min 5 sec) video on multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis that instructiors interested in this case study may want to use to introduce the subject to their students.
  • Parking: A Behavioural Study
    Teachers using this case may be interested in incorporating the video clip based on the case study that was made by the University of Ontario Institute of Technology. The video clip, titled "Parking: A Behavioural Study," is available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzyL7zKCBS4
  • The Epigenome at a Glance
    This video clip describes the general role of the epigenome in gene regulation and its flexibility to change depending upon various environment influences. Running time: 1:47 min. Produced by Genetic Science Learning Center.
  • Insights from Identical Twins
    This video describes how twins carry the same genetic code, but over time can differ in their epigenetic tags due to differential environmental effects. Running time: 4:41 min. Produced by Genetic Science Learning Center.
  • Disease & Mutation: DNA Repair
    This video describes the effects of different agents that can damage DNA, how DNA is normally repaired, and how diseases can occur if repair mechanisms go awry. Running time: 1:05 min. Full transcript also available. Produced by the DNA Learning Center.
  • Epigenetics Tutorial
    This video describes several different epigenetic changes that can occur on chromatin. Running time: 2:13 min. Closed captioning available. Produced by New England Biolabs.
  • Species Distributions
    This short video, which was constructed specifically for this case study by the author of the case, is designed to prod the non-science student into thinking about various ecological factors that might limit the distribution and abundance of a given species. Running time: 10:31 min. Produced by Matthew Rowe in association with The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science and Michigan State University, 2015.
  • Energy Transfer – The 10% Rule
    This short, simple video explains the 10% rule in ecology. Running time: 1:42 min. Produced by Region 10 Education Service Center, 2012.
  • HD: Bait Ball Feast – Nature’s Great Events: The Great Feast – BBC One
    David Attenborough narrates a short clip (1 minute, 14 seconds) from his Blue Planet series showing a marine feeding frenzy. Running time: 1:14 min. Produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation, 2009.
  • Tim Dinsdale. Loch Ness. 1960
    A link to the famous Dinsdale footage, which purportedly shows Nessie, but more likely represents a boat and its wake. Running time: 40 sec. Produced by Tim Dinsdale; YouTube upload by Zoilo Bolanoble. 1960 (original footage); uploaded to YouTube in 2013.
  • The Lost Golf Balls of Loch Ness
    Short video of the extensive search using remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) of the lake bottom in 2009. Lots of golf balls were found, but no monsters. The same video is available embedded in a news article at http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/search-for-loch-ness-monster-nets-100000-golf-balls. Running time: 1:08 min. Produced by SeaTrepid, 2009.
  • The Five Fingers of Evolution
    This video provides a brief introduction to the definition of evolution and the five mechanisms by which it can occur (genetic drift, sexual selection, mutation, immigration/emigration, and natural selection). Depending on when you are using this case during the semester, this video may not be necessary. Running time: 5:23 min. Produced by Paul Anderson and Alan Foreman for TedEd, 2012.
  • Speciation: Of Ligers and Men
    This video introduces the Biological Species Concept and explains how reproductive isolation (both pre-zygotic and post-zygotic) can occur. The video differentiates between allopatric and sympatric speciation. Natural selection and artificial selection are also mentioned. Running time: 10:25 min. Produced by Hank Green, Blake de Pastino, Nick Jenkins, Jesslyn Shields, Brandon Jackson, Michael Aranda, Peter Winkler, and Amber Bushnell, 2012.
  • Evolution and Speciation
    This video reinforces the concept of evolution and how it is commonly illustrated using cladograms. It also compares and contrasts two different species concepts. Running time: 9:12 min. Created by Troy Nash for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Don’t Eat the Plants
    This video shows actual examples of adaptations against herbivory in different plants growing at the University of Cambridge Botanic Garden. The video is particularly useful in that it provides specific examples of defenses in plants with which students are likely to be familiar. Running time: 6:35 min. Produced by Cambridge University. Uploaded to YouTube May 19, 2011.
  • Mediterranean Vegetation—How Plants Survive
    This excerpt from the Kingdom of Plants, a natural history documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, provides a brief overview of the important abiotic features of the Mediterranean region, which is the native habitat of thyme, the focal species of the case study. Students should watch this video to learn about abiotic and biotic forces in the environment that can influence plant adaptations. Running time: 2:12 min. Produced by British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 2012.
  • Plant Defenses Against Herbivory
    This video, created by the author of this case study, examines the ecological niche plants fill as producers and then describes different categories of defenses that plants utilize against herbivores. Students should be advised to take notes from the video, specifically regarding the different physical and chemical defense strategies plants use. Running time: 8:01 min. Created by Phil J. Gibson for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Solving Genetics Problems
    This optional video provides an overview of how to calculate probabilities in monohybrid, dihybrid, and trihybrid crosses (note however that detailed knowledge of inheritance is not essential to completing the case study). Running time: 13:35 min. Produced by ThePenguinProf, 2012.
  • Through the Virtual Cell
    This video provides an overview of many cellular organelles and also discusses transcription and translation. Running time: 6:47 min. Produced by NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project, 2009.
  • Faces of Mitochondrial Disease—The Swinns
    Emily Swinn and her family discuss what life is like for Emily, who suffers from a mitochondrial disease. Running time: 2:58 min. Produced by the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation. Uploaded to YouTube October 29, 2000.
  • Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria
    This video provides a general overview of mitochondria, ATP, and cellular respiration. Running time: 7:48 min. Produced by the Amoeba Sisters, 2014.
  • The Chemical Structure of DNA hhmi/
    This video uses an animation to illustrate the structure and main properties of DNA. Running time: 2:44 min. Produced by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI).
  • The Secret of Life—Discovery of DNA Structure
    This video describes the contributions of several key scientists involved in the discovery of the structure of DNA. Running time: 8:36 min. Produced by Virginia Commonwealth University, 2014.
  • Building a Model of DNA Replication
    This video shows a demonstration of the conservative, dispersive, and semi-conservative models of DNA replication using marshmallows and gum drops. Running time: 3:19. Created by Kevin M. Bonney for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Cytoskeleton Structure and Function
    This video explores the three different types of cytoskeletal structures—microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments—and the roles they play in cellular biology and human physiology. Running time: 9:16 min. Created by Carly Jordan for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Fertilization
    This video provides a cellular-scale perspective of human fertilization as it follows the sperm’s journey to reach and fertilize the egg. Running time: 5:40 min. Created by Thomas Brown, 2012.
  • A Life in Science: Hopi Hoekstra
    This video introduces Hopi Hoekstra, a Harvard researcher who studies the evolution of coat color. In the video, she explains how she decided on a career in biology and introduces her research organism, the oldfield deer mouse. Running time: 3:04 min. Produced by Thomas Lin and Tony Cenicola for The New York Times, 2013.
  • The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection and Adaptation hhmi/
    This short award-winning film introduces students to the rock pocket mouse, Chaetodipus intermedius. In New Mexico’s Valley of Fire, rock pocket mice inhabit both desert habitats and recently formed lava flows. The film addresses how natural selection favors cryptic coloration for mice living both on sand and lava flows, due to predation by visual predators. Running time: 10:25 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive, 2012.
  • Genetics of Color Adaptation
    After students finish the case, they may wish to watch this optional, excellent video on the genetics of coat color, in which Dr. Hopi Hoekstra summarizes and expands on the research findings that are presented in the case study. Running time: 12:15 min. Produced by SeriousScience, 2014.
  • Sweet Beets
    This video provides footage from an actual sugar beet field and the beet stockpiles that will make the case more relatable. There is also a basic introduction to photosynthesis in the video that will help prepare students for Part IV of the case study. Created by Sarah R. Sletten for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015. Running time: 4:01 min.
  • Photosynthesis: Fun in the Sun
    Got oxygen? Got food? Well, then you've got to have photosynthesis! This video breaks down photosynthesis into the “photo” part (capturing light energy and storing it) and the “synthesis” part (fixing carbon into carbohydrates). Created by The Penguin Prof, 2012. Running time: 14:36 min.
  • Photosynthesis
    This video explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into useable sugar. It begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. It describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). It then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. It finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Created by Paul Andersen/Bozeman Science, 2012. Running time: 12:26 min.
  • Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8
    This video explains the extremely complex series of reactions whereby plants feed themselves on sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and also create some byproducts we’re pretty fond of as well. Created by Crash Course, 2012. Running time: 13:14 min.
  • Primordial Soup
    Entertaining and memorable video originally shown in the 1980s at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum featuring Julia Child as she instructs the viewers about the recipe for cooking up “primordial soup.” Running time: 9:47 min. Produced by Smithsonian Institution, 1981.
  • The Double Helix hhmi/
    Short film that tells the story of the scientists and evidence involved in one of the most important scientific quests of the 20th century: the discovery of the structure of DNA. Running time: 16:53 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive. ec)
  • The Chemical Structure of DNA hhmi/
    Short animation showing the detailed structure of DNA. Running time: 2:44 mins. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Chargaff's Ratio hhmi/
    Short animation that discusses Erwin Chargaff’s 1950 publication stating that in the DNA of any given species, the ratio of adenine to thymine is equal, as is the ratio of cytosine to guanine. This became known as Chargaff's ratio, and it was an important clue for solving the structure of DNA. Running time: 0;49 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • HIV Life Cycle hhmi/
    A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Viral Life Cycle hhmi/
    A short video clip showing how two different strains of influenza can infect a single cell to produce a new third strain of influenza. Running time: 3:05 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • HIV Life Cycle hhmi/
    A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • HIV Life Cycle hhmi/
    A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • HIV Life Cycle hhmi/
    A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • AZT Blocks Reverse Transcriptase hhmi/
    A short video animation showing how AZT stops reverse transcriptase because HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Running time: 1:46 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.second
  • Protease Inhibitors hhmi/
    A short video clip showing how protease inhibitors prevent maturation of viral proteins inside HIV particles. Running time: 1:06 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Origin of HIV hhmi/
    Video clip of Dr. Beatrice Hahn discussing her research that has traced the origin of HIV to chimpanzees in Cameroon. Running time: 5:32 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Obesity Epidemic
    This video describes a variety of contributors to the obesity epidemic, including impacts of society, community structure/design, economics, and culture, highlighting the complexity of obesity. The video also points out the physiological underpinning of obesity and strategies for combating obesity that go beyond the level of an individual person. Running time: 7:13 min. Produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011.
  • Leptin, Satiety, and the Mouse Who Ate Too Much
    This video is a whiteboard animation created by the case study author describing the role of leptin in long-term weight homeostasis. The video wraps up by challenging students to think of a variety of ways in which leptin signaling can be disrupted, and the impact of that disruption on weight. Running time: 5:43 min. Produced by Michèle Shuster for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Carrying Extra Weight
    This brief optional video shows everyday people reacting to being asked to carry 10 or 20 pound sandbags, mimicking the effect of being 10 or 20 pounds overweight. Running time: 0:30 min. Produced by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute of Health (NIH), 2012.
  • Animation: The Fate of Fat hhmi/
    This short animation provides an overview of how dietary fat gets digested, packaged, and sent to various tissues for storage or energy. Running time: 2:08 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Origin of Species: The Beak of the Finch hhmi/
    This short film discusses the work of Rosemary and Peter Grant to document the evolution of the famous Galápagos finches by tracking changes in body traits directly tied to survival, such as beak length, and identified behavioral characteristics that prevent different species from breeding with one another. Their pioneering studies have revealed clues as to how 13 distinct finch species arose from a single ancestral population that migrated from the mainland 2 to 3 million years ago. Running time: 15:54 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Beak of the Finch Film With Quiz hhmi/
    An interactive version of the above film, including pause points and quiz questions.
  • Could Bigfoot REALLY Exist?
    This video is a perfect recap for Part I of the case study. Running time: 7:30 min. Produced by Joe Hanson ("It’s Okay to Be Smart" series); uploaded to YouTube 2016.
  • The Double Helix hhmi/
    The Double Helix is the story of the scientists and evidence involved in one of the most important scientific quests of the 20th century: the discovery of the structure of DNA. Running time: 16:53 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Chemical Structure of DNA hhmi/
    Short animation showing the detailed structure of DNA. Running time: 2:44 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • DNA Replication Schematic hhmi/
    A 50-second animation that explains the mechanism of replication. The double helix unwinds and each strand acts as a template for the construction of the new DNA molecule. Running time 0:50 min.Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • DNA Replication Basic Detail hhmi/
    Short 3-D animation showing how DNA is replicated at the molecular level. It involves an enzyme that unwinds the DNA and other enzymes that copy the two resulting strands. Running time: 1:07 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.second
  • DNA Replication Advanced Detail hhmi/
    Short animation showing both strands of the DNA double helix acting as templates for the new DNA strands. Incoming DNA is unraveled by the enzyme helicase, resulting in the 3' strand and the 5' strand. The 3' strands and the 5' strands are replicated by a DNA polymerase enzyme but in different ways. Running time: 2:20 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Double Helix hhmi/
    The Double Helix is the story of the scientists and evidence involved in one of the most important scientific quests of the 20th century: the discovery of the structure of DNA. Running time: 16:53 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • DNA Replication Schematic hhmi/
    A 50-second animation that explains the mechanism of replication. The double helix unwinds and each strand acts as a template for the construction of the new DNA molecule. Running time 0:50 min.Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • DNA Replication Basic Detail hhmi/
    Short 3-D animation showing how DNA is replicated at the molecular level. It involves an enzyme that unwinds the DNA and other enzymes that copy the two resulting strands. Running time: 1:07 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.second
  • DNA Replication Advanced Detail hhmi/
    Short animation showing both strands of the DNA double helix acting as templates for the new DNA strands. Incoming DNA is unraveled by the enzyme helicase, resulting in the 3' strand and the 5' strand. The 3' strands and the 5' strands are replicated by a DNA polymerase enzyme but in different ways. Running time: 2:20 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Heart Function hhmi/
    Short animation showing the movement of blood through the heart. Runnung time: 0:33 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • How a Heart Attack Occurs hhmi/
    Short 3-D animation that shows how plaques form in a blood vessel, leading to blockage and a heart attack. Running time: 037 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Heart Attack and Blocked Arteries hhmi/
    This short video clip makes use of a model of a heart and an artery to describe how blockages lead to heart attack and tissue damage. Running time: 3:59 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Echocardiogram hhmi/
    This video clip provides a live demonstration of an echocardiogram, with a description of the parts of the heart that are visualized. Running time: 4:45 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Diffusion Across Membranes hhmi/
    This four-second animation discusses two types of transport across cell membranes: active and passive transport. Running time: 0.04 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Biology of Skin Color hhmi/
    In this short video, Penn State University anthropologist Dr. Nina Jablonski walks us through the evidence that the different shades of skin color among human populations arose as adaptations to the intensity of ultraviolet radiation in different parts of the world. Running time: 18:58 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • BMI Animation hhmi/
    This short animation shows a comparison of the change in Body Mass Index (BMI) for a given height and varying weights. It also shows why BMI is inaccurate for muscular people. Running time: 1:23 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Anthropocene: Human Impact on the Environment hhmi/
    Human activities are reshaping our planet in profound ways. The changes that have occurred in the last 50-200 years have led scientists to propose a new geologic epoch, called the Anthropocene. This interactive activity demonstrates how human population growth, air pollution, agriculture, mining, water use, and other human activities have impacted the environment and the mark they will leave in the fossil record. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Some Animals are More Equal than Others hhmi/
    This short film opens with two questions: "So what determines how many species live in a given place? Or how many individuals of the species can live somewhere?" The research that provided answers to these questions was set in motion by key experiments by ecologists Robert Paine and James Estes. The film discusses Paine's starfish exclusion experiments on the coast of Washington state as well as Estes' and colleague John Palmisano's discovery that the kelp forest ecosystems of the North Pacific are regulated by the presence or absence of sea otters, which feed on sea urchins that consume kelp. These early studies were the inspiration for hundreds of investigations on other keystone species and trophic cascades, as well as ongoing studies into the regulation of population sizes and species numbers. Running time: 19:29 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Film Guide for "Some Animals are More Equal than Others" hhmi/
    Film guide as well as instructor materials and a student quiz that complement the film "Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species." Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Some Animals are More Equal than Others hhmi/
    This short film opens with two questions: "So what determines how many species live in a given place? Or how many individuals of the species can live somewhere?" The research that provided answers to these questions was set in motion by key experiments by ecologists Robert Paine and James Estes. The film discusses Paine's starfish exclusion experiments on the coast of Washington state as well as Estes' and colleague John Palmisano's discovery that the kelp forest ecosystems of the North Pacific are regulated by the presence or absence of sea otters, which feed on sea urchins that consume kelp. These early studies were the inspiration for hundreds of investigations on other keystone species and trophic cascades, as well as ongoing studies into the regulation of population sizes and species numbers. Running time: 19:29 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Film Guide for "Some Animals are More Equal than Others" hhmi/
    Film guide as well as instructor materials and a student quiz that complement the film "Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species." Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Some Animals are More Equal than Others hhmi/
    This short film opens with two questions: "So what determines how many species live in a given place? Or how many individuals of the species can live somewhere?" The research that provided answers to these questions was set in motion by key experiments by ecologists Robert Paine and James Estes. The film discusses Paine's starfish exclusion experiments on the coast of Washington state as well as Estes' and colleague John Palmisano's discovery that the kelp forest ecosystems of the North Pacific are regulated by the presence or absence of sea otters, which feed on sea urchins that consume kelp. These early studies were the inspiration for hundreds of investigations on other keystone species and trophic cascades, as well as ongoing studies into the regulation of population sizes and species numbers. Running time: 19:29 min.Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Film Guide for "Some Animals are More Equal than Others" hhmi/
    Film guide as well as instructor materials and a student quiz that complement the film "Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species." Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Some Animals are More Equal than Others hhmi/
    This short film opens with two questions: "So what determines how many species live in a given place? Or how many individuals of the species can live somewhere?" The research that provided answers to these questions was set in motion by key experiments by ecologists Robert Paine and James Estes. The film discusses Paine's starfish exclusion experiments on the coast of Washington state as well as Estes' and colleague John Palmisano's discovery that the kelp forest ecosystems of the North Pacific are regulated by the presence or absence of sea otters, which feed on sea urchins that consume kelp. These early studies were the inspiration for hundreds of investigations on other keystone species and trophic cascades, as well as ongoing studies into the regulation of population sizes and species numbers. Running time: 19:29 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Film Guide for "Some Animals are More Equal than Others" hhmi/
    Film guide as well as instructor materials and a student quiz that complement the film "Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species." Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Some Animals are More Equal than Others hhmi/
    This short film opens with two questions: "So what determines how many species live in a given place? Or how many individuals of the species can live somewhere?" The research that provided answers to these questions was set in motion by key experiments by ecologists Robert Paine and James Estes. The film discusses Paine's starfish exclusion experiments on the coast of Washington state as well as Estes' and colleague John Palmisano's discovery that the kelp forest ecosystems of the North Pacific are regulated by the presence or absence of sea otters, which feed on sea urchins that consume kelp. These early studies were the inspiration for hundreds of investigations on other keystone species and trophic cascades, as well as ongoing studies into the regulation of population sizes and species numbers. Running time: 19:29 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Film Guide for "Some Animals are More Equal than Others" hhmi/
    Film guide as well as instructor materials and a student quiz that complement the film "Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species." Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Viral Life Cycle hhmi/
    This short animation illustrates how delivery of a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect neighboring cells. Running time: 1:08 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Introduction to Oxidation and Reduction
    This video introduces oxidation states, oxidation, and reduction; also provides some tips for remembering oxidation and reduction. Running time: 11:03 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Review from Biological Point-of-View
    This video looks at oxidation and reduction in a biological context. Running time: 13:28 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • The Perilous Plight of the Pika
    This video describes the unique environmental requirements of the American pika, giving a general overview of the habitat requirements, food preferences, and temperature ranges necessary for this indicator species to survive. Running time: 6:06 min. Produced by Fleur M. Ferro in association with The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science and Michigan State University, 2015.
  • C. elegans Movement
    This video shows normal Caenorhabditis elegans movement. Running time: 5:27 min. Uploaded to YouTube by BioRadLifeScience, 2013.
  • Protein Trafficking Through the Golgi
    This video provides an overview of protein movement from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to the Golgi for modification. Running time: 3:27 min. Produced by Virtual Cell Project, Virtual Cell Animation Collection, Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center, North Dakota State University.
  • Enzyme Function and Inhibition
    A brief narrated animation describing basic enzyme structure (active site, substrate) and competitive versus non-competitive inhibition. Running time: 1:07 min. Produced by JubbaTheHott, uploaded to YouTube in 2009.
  • Enzymes and … Pac-Man?
    Funny animation making an analogy between enzymes and Pac-Man from the vintage video game. It discusses active site, substrate, optimal temperature/pH, and denaturation. Running time: 4:50 min. Produced by the Amoeba Sisters, 2013.
  • Enzyme Function and Inhibition
    An animation describing the basic structure of an enzyme and the environmental factors that influence proper enzyme folding. The induced fit model of enzyme-substrate interaction is demonstrated, and competitive and non-competitive inhibition are described, including real-world examples of each. Running Time: 5:13 min. Produced by Sarah A. Wojiski for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, 2015.
  • Mitosis
    This video explains the molecular mechanism of mitosis. Running time: 6:09 min. Produced by NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project, 2011.
  • Who Killed Yew?
    This video explains how the poison paclitaxel inhibits microtubule function during mitosis. Running time: 1:56 min. Created by Marlee B. Marsh for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2014.
  • Animated Life: The Living Fossil Fish hhmi/
    This animated short film tells the engaging tale of the discovery of the coelacanth. In 1938, South African museum curator Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer came across a strange blue fin poking out of a pile of fish. With its fleshy, lobed fins and its tough armored scales, the coelacanth did not look like any other fish that exists today. The coelacanth belongs to a lineage that has remained virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years, earning it the description of a "living fossil." Running time: 7:18 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive, 2016.
  • World’s Weirdest- Narwhals
    A narwhal's tusk is actually a tooth that can reach 10 feet in length, and scientists have numerous theories about its powers and purpose. Running time: 2:14 min. Produced by National Geographic Wild, 2012.
  • How Saber-Toothed Cats Grew Their Mouth Swords
    This video discusses some ideas as to how and why saber-toothed cats had large teeth as weapons. Running time: 5:29 min. Produced by Vox. Uploaded to YouTube on July 1, 2015.
  • Battle of the Fiddler Crabs
    This video shows actual footage of two fiddler crabs (Uca stylifer) fighting on a beach. Running time: 2:27 min. Produced by Michael Rosenberg. Uploaded to YouTube on May 10, 2013.
  • Animal Structures and What They Mean
    This video outlines the relationship between structure and function, which is usually complementary; but since some structures are extreme and require an enormous energy investment, structure may sometimes hinder function. Running time: 8:22 min. Created by D. Parks Collins for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science. Date: 2015.
  • The Process of Osmoregulation
    This video provides an overview of how the renal system, specifically the nephrons, accomplish the process of creating urine while conserving important molecules like amino acids and glucose. Running time: 3:30 min. Created by Ashley E. Rhodes for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Freshwater Adaptations
    This video expands upon the Process of Osmoregulation video by explaining the adaptations freshwater vertebrates, specifically amphibians, have adapted as a result of living in an environment with a low osmolarity. Running time: 1:19 min. Created by Ashley E. Rhodes for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Deicing Alters Freshwater Environments
    This video explains why alterations to freshwater vertebrates’ environments, specifically those changes brought about by deicing, are so devastating. Running time: 1:27 min. Created by Ashley E. Rhodes for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Animated Life: The Living Fossil Fish
    This animated short film tells the engaging tale of the discovery of the coelacanth. In 1938, South African museum curator Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer came across a strange blue fin poking out of a pile of fish. With its fleshy, lobed fins and its tough armored scales, the coelacanth did not look like any other fish that exists today. The coelacanth belongs to a lineage that has remained virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years, earning it the description of a "living fossil." Running time: 7:18 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive, 2016.
  • Click and Learn: Great Transitions Interactive – The Origin of Tetrapods hhmi/
    The fossils of transitional creatures were key evidence for Darwin’s evolutionary theory, but none had been found when he published On the Origin of Species. Now, there are many examples of such fossils, which clearly show that big evolutionary leaps consist of many smaller steps. This self-paced "Click and Learn" activity explores transitional forms with features of both fish and tetrapods, and shows the progression of anatomical changes from reconstructed fossil skeletons. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive, 2015.
  • Click and Learn: Great Transitions Interactive - The Origin of Tetrapods
    The fossils of transitional creatures were key evidence for Darwin’s evolutionary theory, but none had been found when he published On the Origin of Species. Now, there are many examples of such fossils, which clearly show that big evolutionary leaps consist of many smaller steps. This self-paced "Click and Learn" activity explores transitional forms with features of both fish and tetrapods, and shows the progression of anatomical changes from reconstructed fossil skeletons. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive, 2015.
  • Click-and-Learn: Virus Explorer hhmi/
    Explore the similarities and differences of a variety of viruses including the Ebola virus by sorting them based on structure, genomic make-up, host range, transmission mechanism, and vaccine availability. Running time: Self-paced. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Viral Life Cycle hhmi/
    This short animation illustrates how delivery of a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect neighboring cells. Running time: 1:08 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Click-and-Learn: Virus Explorer hhmi/
    Explore the similarities and differences of a variety of viruses including the Ebola virus by sorting them based on structure, genomic make-up, host range, transmission mechanism, and vaccine availability. Running time: Self-paced. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Is Human-Biting Preference an Evolved Trait in Mosquitoes?
    This video begins with a historical description of the building of the Panama Canal as a “hook” to get students to understand the importance of learning more about the basic biology of mosquitoes in order to deal with problems of mosquito-borne diseases. It then provides background information about the published study that is the basis for the case. Running time: 9:32 min. Created by Gary Laverty for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Mosquito Life Cycle
    This video documents the four stages of development in the life of Culex mosquitoes. Running time: 4:15 min. Ilse Knatz Ortabasi, 2007.
  • Malaria: Human Host hhmi/
    Although this video describes the life cycle of the malaria mosquito (versus yellow fever), it nevertheless provides a good introduction to the role of mosquitoes as vectors of human disease. Running time: 4:18 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • The Simple Story of Photosynthesis and Food
    This video explores the relationship between photosynthesis and carbohydrates, starch, and fiber; and how the air we breathe is related to the food we ingest. The video provides a general overview and context for a more detailed discussion of the process in the next video. Running time: 4:00 min. Lesson by Amanda Ooten, animation by Bouncepad Collective, 2013.
  • Photosynthesis
    In this video Paul Andersen reviews photosynthesis including the structure of choloroplasts, the major pigments involved, the light reaction, the Calvin cycle, and strategies for avoiding the problem of photorespiration that evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Running time: 12:26 min. Bozeman Science, 2012.
  • How Atrazine Kills Plants
    This video links the action of the herbicide atrazine to the inhibition of photosynthesis. This video also prepares students to consider how the actions of herbicides influence each of the major components in photosynthesis. Running time: 4:49 min. Created by Angela Hartsock for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • How Old Is This Violin?
    This video serves as a hook into the case as “Professor P” shows a violin to various people and asks how they might determine its age. Running time: 3:24 min. Created by Gary Patterson, John Wild, and Scott Bailey for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Why Do Trees Have Rings?
    In this video James May explains the difference between primary (height) and secondary (width) growth of trees, and the color difference between early and late wood. Running time: 3:37 min. Produced by Brit Lab, 2013.
  • Secondary Growth and the Formation of Annual Rings
    Students use a paper model to explain how the vascular cambium helps form annual rings in trees. Running time: 1:58 min. EuniceBiology, 2013.
  • The Science of Tree Rings!
    Henri Grissino-Mayer demonstrating techniques for coring a tree with an increment borer. Running time: 4:57 min. Henri Grissino-Mayer, 2015.
  • Using p53 to Fight Cancer hhmi/
    This animation demonstrates how cancerous cells could be destroyed using a modified virus. Running time: 1:02 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Using p53 to Fight Cancer hhmi/
    This animation demonstrates how cancerous cells could be destroyed using a modified virus. Running time: 1:02 min. Produced by: HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Genetically Modified Mosquitoes hhmi/
    In this video, scientists with the company Oxitec explain how they engineered mosquitoes to carry a "lethality" gene that prevents mosquito larvae from growing into adults unless they are fed the antibiotic tetracycline. The genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were first produced in 2002 and bred in the lab to give rise to a colony of mosquitoes all dependent on tetracycline. This antibiotic - the antidote to the lethality gene - is available to the mosquitoes in the lab, but not in the wild. In 2015, male mosquitoes from this GM colony were released in some areas of Brazil to help stop the spread of Zika virus. When male GM-mosquitoes mate with non-GM females in the wild, they pass on the lethality gene to the offspring who, without access to tetracycline, die before growing into adults. Running time: 8:35 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Viral Life Cycle hhmi/
    This short animation shows how a virus infects the cell, replicates, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells. Running time: 1:08 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Sizing Up the Brain Gene by Gene hhmi/
    In this video lecture, Dr. Christopher Walsh discusses the human brain as a complex network of cells whose organization and function are controlled by many genes. By working with patients who have developmental brain disorders, Walsh and his team have begun to identify genes that are required for proper brain development. This research has led to some surprising insights, such as a connection between cell division orientation and cell fate during the development of the cerebral cortex. Running time: 59:32 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • When Harry Met Gabby, Part I
    This video introduces the concept of hypoxia, how it becomes a problem in nature, how human activity has altered the balance of our waterways, and factors that alter levels of dissolved atmospheric oxygen. Running time: 9:10 min. Created by Orianna Carter for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • When Harry Met Gabby, Part II
    This video reviews oxygen production vs. oxygen consumption, and detrimental impacts from decreased oxygen levels in waterways, including eutrophication and dead zones. Running time: 9:09 min. Created by Orianna Carter for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Atya Gabonensis
    Close-up of the viper shrimp showing its habitat and social behavior. The unique fanned filter feeding claws are fascinating to watch. Running time: 1:23 min.
  • Rotifer Feeding
    Video clip of a rotifer feeding on phytoplankton using its cilia in a swirling motion to bring the food source to its mouth. Running time: 1:09 min.
  • The Human Ecosystem
    This video explores the microbiome as a human ecosystem and describes adaptations that different microbes need to survive in different areas of the body. Running time: 3:56 min. Produced by Genetic Science Learning Center, 2014.
  • We Are Not Alone: The Unseen World of the Human Microbiome
    This video is an integral part of the case study and introduces students to the human microbiome, the diversity of the microbial world, and that our complicated association with microbes involves both positive and negative effects. Running time: 10:45 min. Created by Joan-Beth Gow for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    This video presents a discussion between two physicians at the Mayo Clinic on the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treatment of CDI (Clostridium difficile infection). This video will help students respond to questions for Part I of the in-class portion of the case. Running time: 4:30 min. Produced by the Mayo Clinic, 2014.
  • Genetic Toolkit
    This video discusses homeobox genes, a set of genes that produce basic body parts in all animals, beginning with Walter Gehring’s 1994 discovery of the eyeless gene, which guides the formation of fruit fly eyes. Running time: 4:23 min. Produced by PBS.
  • Evolution of the Eye
    Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins discusses the evolution of the eye. Running time: 7:55 min. Produced by the BBC.
  • Nothing to Sneeze At “Science
    Although we all know that sneezes and coughs transmit infections, little research had been done to model how they work. Lydia Bourouiba and John Bush of MIT’s Applied Mathematics Lab used high speed cameras and fluid mechanics to reveal why we’ve grossly underestimated how far sneezes and coughs transmit infections in enclosed spaces. Created by: Science Friday. Produced by: Luke Groskin. Running Time: 5:04 min. Date: May 1, 2014.
  • Your Very Special Microbial Cloud “Science
    SUPPLEMENTAL VIDEO: It’s floating all around you, all the time—a wafting cloud formed by billions of bacteria that slough off your body with every movement you make. At the Biology and the Built Environment Center at the University of Oregon, researchers have revealed that not only can they detect and catalog this personal microbial cloud, but each person’s cloud is unique. Created by: Science Friday. Produced by: Luke Groskin. Running Time: 5:32 min. Date: January 25, 2016.
  • The Axolotl: A Cut Above the Rest “Science
    The axolotl is a Mexican salamander with an incredible ability: Cut its leg off, and the limb will grow right back! How it does this and why humans can’t is still a bit of a mystery. Researchers like Susan Bryant of UC Irvine are studying these amphibians to understand the underlying mechanisms for their miraculous regenerative powers. Video created by: Science Friday. Produced by: Christian Baker. Running Time: 4:27 min. Date: August 23, 2016.
  • "Hot" for Turkey “Science
    The research of Richard Buchholz of the University of Mississippi is shedding light on how female wild turkeys parse the courtship performances of males to determine their genetic potential. Video created by: Science Friday. Produced by: Luke Groskin. Running Time: 5:28 min. Date: November 20, 2014.
  • Biodiverstiy
    This Ted Ed video explains what biodiversity is, defining the three components (ecosystem, species, genetic), and establishes its importance to ecosystem functioning. Running time: 4:18 min. Created by Kim Preshoff for TED Ed, 2015.
  • What Is a Species?
    This video defines the biological species concept, the morphological species concept, the genotypic species concept, the ecological species concept, and evolutionary and phylogenetic species concepts, while also mentioning there are many species concepts used. It also addresses many problems with species concepts and classifications by using real examples from animals, and explains the importance of classifying organisms. Running time: 6:52 min. Produced by The Brain Scoop, 2016.
  • DNA Sequence Evolution
    This video explains DNA sequence mutations and how they can be used to document changes that have occurred in species over time and can be used to tell a story about the relationships between different forms of life. Running time: 7:22 min. Created by Kristen Short for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Big Question
    This video explains how biodiversity (nature) can be valued by defining ecosystem services, aesthetic value, and other aspects of biodiversity value. Running time: 3:15 min. What is Nature Worth? Produced by the Institute on the Environment, University of Minnesota, 2010.
  • The History of DNA Barcoding
    This video discusses the history of DNA barcoding and covers some of its basic uses. Its content is not as central to the case as the content of the other videos, but some instructors may wish to use this video as a way to help students see the collaborative nature of science and how biological concepts are used in the context of real, current research projects. Running time: 2:33 min. Produced by the DNA Learning Center, 2011.
  • A Cure for the Colorblindness Blues “Science
    Using a virus-based gene therapy and a group of highly trained monkeys, Maureen and Jay Neitz may have created a cure for colorblindness. Created by: Science Friday. Produced by: Luke Groskin. Running Time: 5:58 min. Date: September 1, 2017.
  • Jennifer Doudna: How CRISPR Lets Us Edit Our DNA
    This TED Talk, delivered by one of the co-inventors of CRISPR-Cas9, provides an overview of how the system works and a call to the scientific community to pause and discuss the ethical implications of this new technology. Running time: 15:53 min. Produced by TED, 2015.
  • Is Anorexia in Your Genes?
    What causes a person to become anorexic? This brief video with peer-appeal describes the complexities and misunderstandings related to anorexia nervosa and explores a genetic link. Running time: 3:08 min. Produced by Discovery News/Seeker 2013.
  • The Epigenetics of Identical Twins
    This clever video provides background for those who wish to further examine an epigenetic model of anorexia and how the nature-nurture model is dynamic. Running time: 4:45 min, Produced by Learn.Genetics (The University of Utah), 2013.
  • Apple and Linguine: All About the Digestive System
    This lighthearted video takes a look at the individual organs of the digestive system, how food is digested into usable nutrients, and how those nutrients are mobilized to different parts of the body. Running time: 14:05 min. Created by Jennifer Jackson and Karen Aguirre for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery—Roux-en-Y Procedure
    This video from the Mayo Clinic describes the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure and nutritional guidelines for post-operative hospital patients. A second part of the video discusses management post surgery, and is optional viewing. Running time: 7:58 min. Produced by the Mayo Clinic, 2009.
  • The Claymation of Cholera
    This claymation video introduces a camper who drinks water contaminated with Vibrio cholera, and describes the mechanism of action of cholera toxin. The toxin disrupts the function of the chloride transport system in the small intestine, resulting in abnormal water partition in the small bowel, with life-threatening excretion of fluid in the form of rice-water-stool. Running time: 2:04 min. Produced by the “Clay mators,” 2012.
  • Protein Structure, Part 1: Where Are Proteins? What Do They Do?
    This video leads students through an overview of general protein structure, with emphasis on keratin. Students learn that proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids and that the sequence of amino acids gives each protein its unique properties. Running time: 5:35 min. Created by A. Daniel Johnson for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Protein Structure, Part 2: How and Why Do Proteins Fold Into Complex Shapes?
    This video explores the role of amino acid sequence in protein structure, how hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone creates the secondary structure of proteins, and how intra- and intermolecular interactions define tertiary and quaternary structure respectively. Students also learn how keratins are assembled in hair. Running time: 12:28 min. Created by A. Daniel Johnson for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Bulk Membrane Transport and Botox
    This video provides a brief overview of Botox and its societal use. The video also provides a basic overview of endocytosis and exocytosis, which is relevant background information students need in order to explore the molecular mechanisms of Botox highlighted in the case study. Running time: 5:42 min. Created by Adam Kleinschmit for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Botox: Before and After
    A before-and-after video of an individual who has received Botox for cosmetic purposes. Running time: 6:19 min. Created by Janet D’Oliveira, 2014.
  • The Mechanism of Action of Botulinum Toxin
    Video of the molecular mechanism of botulinum neurotoxin; start at 0:01 and end at 2:40 min. Running time: 10:52. Created by Southern California Movement Disorder Specialists (SoCalMDS), 2011.
  • Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis
    Animation of clathrin-coated vesicle formation; start at 2:22 and end at 4:15 min. Running time: 4:16 min. Created by Janet Iwasa, 2012.
  • How Respiration and Transpiration Were Brought to Light by Priestley
    This video provides a light-hearted introduction to how plants respire so that students can consider the potential for gas/vapor exchange in plants. The video goes on to explore the experiments of Joseph Priestley in the 1770s as he discovered oxygen in a closed space using candles and plants. Running time: 5:53 min. Created by Sandra J. Connelly for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • How to Grow Fresh Air
    This video provides an introduction to the problem of air contamination and how plants may be used to improve air quality. The case study will expand on this basic introduction; however, students feel a connection to the real-world problem through Mr. Meattle’s personal story. Running time: 4:04 min. Created by Kamal Meattle, 2009.
  • What Do You Think About Pandas?
    This trigger video is intended to engage students in the question of how the specialized diet of panda bears might influence their lifestyle. Running time: 3:33 min. Created by Trish J. Moore for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Proximate Versus Ultimate Explanations in Biology
    This optional video introduces students to two complementary approaches to understanding biological systems by taking them through the example of the lac operon. Running time: 7:39 min. Created by Trish J. Moore for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Homeostasis, Hormones and Feedback Control
    This video reviews homeostasis and the role of the endocrine system in the control of homeostasis. Running time: 12:42 min. Created by Trish J. Moore for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Homeostasis: Integrating External Environment with Internal Conditions
    This video continues to review the theme of homeostasis control by the endocrine system but introduces the coordination with external signals via the nervous system by focusing on the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-endocrine organ axis. Running time: 5:28 min. Created by Trish J. Moore for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • In a Flash: Firefly Communication “Science
    Fireflies communicate with a "language of light" that scientists still don’t completely understand. In this video, James Lloyd and Marc Branham of the University of Florida, Gainesville, discuss unique flash patterns and times for some of the 2,000 types of fireflies that light up the summer nights. Created by Science Friday. Produced by Emily V. Driscoll. Running Time: 4:32 min. Date: July 3, 2014.
  • What is Pseudoscience?
    This video introduces pseudoscience as a science mimic that lacks empirical facts and procedures. The birth of Spiritualism from the Fox sisters’ hoax is briefly described. Running time: 3:53 min. Produced by Objective: Change the World, 2015.
  • Anecdotes
    This video gives an overwiew of the distinction between “clean” and “dirty” data and argues that the plural of “anecdote” is not “data.” The narrator examines various scenarios involving Reiki healing to highlight the risks associated with anecdotal evidence as it relates to health decisions. Running time: 7:42 min. Produced by Body of Evidence, 2016.
  • Categories of Experimental Design Applicable to Human Health
    Not all evidence is equal; there are differences in validity, credibility, and the ability to make direct applications to human health. Some of these differences come from the way data is collected or experimental design. This video identifies the main categories of experimental design that apply to human health. Running time: 6:32 min. Created by Chantilly A. Apollon for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Why Are Leaves Green? Part 1
    Running time: 2:33. Produced by MinuteEarth.
  • Why Are Leaves Green? Part 2
    These two videos (Part 1 and 2 above) discuss how differential light absorption by chlorophyll results in green leaves. Running time: 2:28 min. Produced by MinuteEarth, 2013.
  • Why Do Leaves Turn Color in the Fall?
    This video discusses the different strategies that deciduous and evergreen trees use to deal with harsh winters, why green leaves turn different colors in the fall, and the factors involved in determining fall leaf colors. Running time: 2:42 min. Produced by Super Scienced, 2014.
  • C3 and C4 Growing Temperatures
    This video discusses conditions favorable to plants using the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Running time: 2:21 min. Created by David J. Grisé for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2015.
  • Mountain Lion Training and Treadmills
    Video showing puma (mountain lion) running on a treadmill, produced for the research of Williams et al., 2014, “Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks,” Science 346:81-85. Running time: 0:53 min. Produced by T.M. Williams et al., 2014.
  • The Original Shrimp on Treadmill
    Video showing shrimp on treadmill produced by David Scholnick, of Pacific University Oregon and his colleague, College of Charleston Lou Burnett. Running time: 1:39 min. Produced by David Scholnick and Lou Burnett, 2009.
  • Mountain Lion Training and Treadmills
    Video showing puma (mountain lion) running on a treadmill, produced for the research of Williams et al., 2014, “Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks,” Science 346:81–85. Running time: 0:53 min. Produced by T.M. Williams et al., 2014.
  • The Original Shrimp on Treadmill
    Video showing shrimp on treadmill produced by David Scholnick, of Pacific University Oregon and his colleague, College of Charleston Lou Burnett. Running time: 1:39 min. Produced by David Scholnick and Lou Burnett, 2009.
  • Bioluminescence and Caravaggism
    This video demonstrates Michelangelo Caravaggio’s Chiaroscuro style of painting, and his use of fluorescent firefly powder along with the camera obscura technique to produce his photography-like paintings. Running time: 5:06 min. Created by Y. Wang for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Fireflies and Firefly Bioluminescence
    This video provides basic facts about fireflies, a type of nocturnal beetle belonging to the family Lampyridae. The video also provides information on the biochemical process and mechanisms of firefly bioluminescence. Running time: 4:11 min. Created by Y. Wang for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • The Biological Function, Control and Application of Bioluminescence
    This video presents key concepts and biochemical pathways of bioluminescence, and the evolutionary value of bioluminescence in animal communication and defense. Running time: 9:01 min. Created by Y. Wang for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Supplemental Video: In a Flash: Firefly Communication “Science
    Fireflies communicate with a "language of light" that scientists still don't completely understand. In this video, James Lloyd and Marc Branham of the University of Florida, Gainesville, discuss unique flash patterns and times for some of the 2,000 types of fireflies that light up the summer nights. Created by Science Friday. Produced by Emily V. Driscoll. Running Time: 4:32 min. Date: July 3, 2014.
  • Jane Poynter: Life in Biosphere 2
    This video is a personal account of one of the original biospherians who lived in Biosphere 2 for “two years and twenty minutes.” Ms. Poynter describes the facility, the goals of the project, the challenges and crises encountered during her stay, personal reflections, and applications of the project to present day environmental thinking. Running time: 15:53 min. Produced by TED Talks, 2009.
  • Inside Biosphere 2, The World’s Largest Earth Science Experiment
    This video surveys the current uses of Biosphere 2, including its function as a public museum. The video also describes the largest earth science experiment ever conducted, LEO (“Landscape Evolution Observatory”), and the history of the two human experiments in Biosphere 2. Running time: 16:55 min. Produced by The Good Stuff (PBS), 2015.
  • Have You Thanked Your Ecosystem Today?
    This video provides information students need to identify and classify four types of ecosystem services, as identified by The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2009). Its purpose is to assess ecosystem change and assess its impact on human wellbeing. Running time: 6:52 min. Created by Kathy Gallucci for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Blackfish
    This video is a theatrical trailer for the movie, Blackfish, a documentary about orca whales in captivity. The video is intended to provoke an emotional response in the students and make them care about the topic of the case. Running time: 2:24 min. Created by Magnolia Pictures, CNN films, 2013.
  • Modes of Selection
    This video defines ecotypes and describes three modes of selection and how they act on different traits. Running time: 5:09 min. Created by Celeste Leander and Pamela Kalas for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Scientific Method
    The scientific method steps are set to a song in this video. The song identifies the steps as: make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis/make a prediction, do a test or experiment, analyze data, and draw a conclusion. The song repeats these steps several times to drive home the process. Running time: 3:08 min. Created by Maynerscience’s Channel, 2011.
  • Chit Chat with Carol Conley
    This parody of a talk show pits two interviewees’ positions on the vaccine controversy against each other. As each tries to convince the other regarding their positions, the talk show host encourages discussion. Ultimately the viewer will decide who presents the scientific point of view. Running time: 6:58 min. Created by Kim R. Finer for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • How a Vaccine Works
    This video provides a very basic introduction to vaccines and pathogens. Information regarding the action of white blood cells (including B and T cells) and antibodies also is presented. Running time: 7:18 min. Created by MITK12 Videos, 2012.
  • A Cure for Cancer?
    This trigger video introduces the case study. It depicts three college students preparing for an exam, when one reveals a family member’s diagnosis with cancer. This leads to some questions and discussion among the characters about the implications of the diagnosis. Running time: 2:48 min. Created Justin A. Pruneski for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • The Cell Cycle and Cancer
    Learn the importance of the cell cycle and a real life example when it is not controlled: cancer. Running time: 7:41 min. Produced by Amoeba Sisters, 2013.
  • What Is Cancer?
    Cancer experts at Cancer Treatment Centers of America outline how cancer develops, the most common forms, how it's treated and how to manage treatment side effects. They also discuss what the future holds for cancer treatment. Running time: 5:04 min. Produced by Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 2013.
  • Animated Introduction to Cancer Biology (Full Documentary)
    An animation/video teaching the basics of how cancer forms and spreads. Topics include: mutation, tumor suppressors, oncogenes, angiogenesis, apoptosis, metastasis and drug resistance. Running time: 12:07 min. Produced by CancerQuest, 2013.
  • Breast Cancer – Symptoms and Treatments
    This animation explains what cancer is and how it can develop in the breasts. It also describes the different symptoms that are possible signs for breast cancer, the risk factors associated with the disease, the different types of breast screening methods, and available treatment options. Running time: 2:34 min. Produced by Healthchanneltv, 2013.
  • Conspiracy Theories: Why We Believe
    Conspiracy theories are characterized by unfalsifiable explanations for confusing or stressful events. Who is most likely to believe them? And why do our brains gravitate toward these theories? Running time: 3:06 min. Produced by DNews, 2013.
  • Why Haven’t We Cured Cancer?
    Ever wonder why we still haven't cured cancer? This video discusses what's wrong with that question and why it's so hard to find a cure. Running time: 8:38 min. Produced by SciShow, 2015.
  • Has the Cure for Cancer Been Suppressed?
    Although cancer remains one of the world's biggest killers, pharmaceutical companies are able to generate billions of dollars selling expensive cancer treatments. With profits to be made in keeping people sick, has the cure for cancer been suppressed? Running time: 5:05 min. Produced by Alltime Conspiracies, 2015.
  • Phases of Meiosis
    This video explains the major phases of meiosis including: interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, interphase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. Also explains how variation is created in the next generation through meiosis and sexual reproduction. Running time: 8:25 min. Created by Paul Anderson. Produced by Bozeman Science.
  • Parthenogenesis
    This video animation on parthenogenesis shows the normal events of meiosis and explains four different types of parthenogenesis in which the events of meiosis are modified to produce offspring that develop from an egg that has not been fertilized by a sperm. Students are asked to predict the sex and genetic makeup of each type of parthenogenetic offspring. Students should be directed to think carefully about the questions posed in this video, but they do not have to bring written answers to class. Their understanding of this material will be probed in the pre- and post-case questions. Running time: 8:45 min. Created by Fiona E. Rawle, Marc Dryer, and Joan C. Sharp for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • 2-Minute Neuroscience: The Neuron
    This video gives a brief overview of the parts of a neuron and how it functions in signaling. Running time: 1:47 min. Created by Neuroscientifically Challenged, 2014.
  • A Personal Story of ALS: Told by Kirsten Hokeness
    This video narrates one woman’s journey as she learns that her mother is diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for which there is no cure. The signs and symptoms of the disease are described here as she talks about her mother’s progression with the deadly illness and highlights some of the emotional turmoil the family is left to face. Running time: 5:01 min. Created by Kirsten L. Hokeness for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • 2-Minute Neuroscience: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    This brief video gives an overview of ALS symptoms and pathophysiology. Running time: 1:58 min. Created by Neuroscientifically Challenged, 2017.
  • Protein Synthesis
    This animation gives an overview of protein synthesis, transcription, and translation. Running time: 4:47 min. Created by Wisc-Online, 2017.
  • Short Film: The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans hhmi/
    A keenly observant young man named Tony Allison, working in East Africa in the 1950s, first noticed the connection and assembled the pieces of the puzzle. His story stands as the first and one of the best understood examples of natural selection, where the selective agent, adaptive mutation, and molecule involved are known - and this is in humans to boot. The protection against malaria by the sickle-cell mutation shows how evolution does not necessarily result in the best solution imaginable but proceeds by whatever means are available. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive. Running time: 14:03 min.
  • Film Guide: The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans hhmi/
    This guide and quiz support the short film "The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans." The "At a Glance Film Guide" provides a short summary of the film, along with key concepts and ties to selected curricula and textbooks. The "In-Depth Film Guide for Teachers" includes a more detailed summary and background information, discussion points, lists of related resources and references, and answers to the accompanying student quiz. The "Quiz" is designed as a summative assessment that probes student understanding of the key concepts addressed in the film. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
  • Animation: Sickle Cell Anemia hhmi/
    A one-minute animation about sickle cell anemia, a genetic disease that affects hemoglobin. A single nucleotide change in the hemoglobin gene causes an amino acid substitution in the hemoglobin protein from glutamic acid to valine. The resulting proteins stick together to form long fibers and distort the shape of the red blood cells. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive. Running time: 1:00 min.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Then and Now
    This video opens with the personal story of a woman suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) in the 1970s, a friend of the lead author’s, whom she met in college. The video then relates selected facts and statistics about CF, and ends with a description of current treatments that have helped to extend the life expectancy of those with CF. Running time: 4: 54 min. Created by Kathleen Nolan for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2016.
  • Living with Cystic Fibrosis
    This video explains a day in the life of a teenager with cystic fibrosis. The video focuses on the daily regimen of treatments that Holly Rosanna, who is eighteen years old and has the disease, follows, including the use of a mechanized compression vest to break up the mucous in her lungs. Running time: 13:57 min. Created by Holly Rosanna, 2011.
  • My Life Expectancy
    In this video, nineteen-year-old Claire Wineland talks about her life expectancy and the emotional issues of living with CF. Running time: 5:03 min. Created by The Clarity Project, 2015.
  • Central Dogma of Biology
    This compilation of three HHMI Biointeractive videos provides an overview of the central dogma of biology and covers transcription, splicing and translation. Running time: 5:51 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2003.
  • RNA interference (RNAi)
    This narrated animation gives an overview of RNAi. Running time: 5:06 min. Produced by Nature Video, 2011.
  • How to Make a Genetically Modified Plant
    This video provides an overview of how transgenic plants are made, including creation of the Ti plasmid and transfer into the plant cell. Running time: 10:26 min. Created by Ann T.S. Taylor for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Dog Breeding hhmi/
    This short video discusses how the many forms of dogs that exist today were all created through selective breeding from the dog's ancestor, the wolf. In a span of less than 10,000 years, breeders have changed traits and body shapes of dogs by artificial selection. For example, emphasizing different aspects of hunting and herding behavior. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive. Running time: 1:53 min.
  • Dog Genomics and Dogs as Model Organisms hhmi/
    In this video lecture, Dr. Elinor Karlsson of the Broad Institute discusses using dogs in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and the genetic evidence for dog domestication, as revealed by copy-number variations in the amylase gene. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive. Running time: 29 min.
  • How the World Joined Together to End AIDS for Children
    This video shows how far the world has come in preventing AIDS in children worldwide. Running time: 5:42 min. Produced by UNICEF, 2016.
  • Faces of HIV Trailer
    This trailer summarizes the personal stories of diverse Floridians living with HIV. Running time: 2:07 min. Produced by the Florida Department of Health, 2011.
  • HIV and CCR5
    This is a whiteboard-style video that introduces students to the basics of HIV and AIDS, the mechanism that HIV uses to enter a CD4 immune cell, how CCR5-Δ32 inhibits this mechanism, and CCR5 genetics. Running time: 6:14 min. Created by Jennifer M. Dechaine for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Acids, Bases and pH
    This video explains pH as the power of hydrogen and how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. The video also explains how the reverse is true. In addition, an analysis of a strong acid and strong base is included. Running time: 8:53 min. Produced by Bozeman Science, 2013.
  • Acid-Base Chemistry, pH, and the Human Body
    Created by the author specifically for this case, this brief video applies the definitions of acids, bases, and pH to a scenario in which blood chemistry is altered in our body. Running time: 4:07 min. Created by Brian J. Dingmann for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Bohr Effect vs. Haldane Effect
    This video takes a close look at how some friendly competition for hemoglobin allows the body to more efficiently move oxygen and carbon dioxide around. Running time: 13:52 min. Produced by the Khan Academy, 2012.
  • Common Elements in Living Things
    Reviews the elements that comprise most living matter on Earth. Running time: 1:10 min. Created by Brain Genie, 2011.
  • The Chemical Bond
    Explains the concepts of covalent bonding, electronegativity, and polarity. Running time: 3:32 min. Created by Professor Dave, 2015.
  • Representing Molecule Structures
    Explains how to read and interpret structural and skeletal chemical diagrams, two ways to represent molecules in a short-hand format, and how to convert between the two diagram styles. Running time: 2:39 min. Created by Elizabeth C. Leininger for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017
  • Isomers
    Explains the difference between structural and stereoisomers. Running time: 6:48 min. Created by The Khan Academy, 2015.
  • Chirality
    Defines the concept of chirality. Running time: 3:10 min. Created by Lydia Flynn, 2013.
  • The Origin of Species: The Beak of the Finch
    This video from HHMI on the Galapagos Finches provides a great example of natural selection and adaptation and can serve as a useful introduction to this case study. Running time: 16:08 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive, 2014.
  • The Mass Spectrometer
    This brief video explains how a mass spectrometer works. Running time: 2:43 min.
  • How Does Asthma Work?
    This animated video gives an overview of asthma, including why people get it, and how it can be deadly. Running time: 5:09 min. Produced by TED-Ed, 2017.
  • ATP and Energy within Cells
    This short video reintroduces students to the role of ATP as the “currency” of energy within the cell and asks why cells produce lots of ATP in the presence (but little in the absence) of oxygen. Running time: 1:50 min. Produced by Monica L. Tischler, 2017, for NCCSTS.
  • An Introduction to Enzyme Assays
    This brief video introduces the concept behind enzyme assays and how they were used historically, and introduces three questions needed to accept Mitchell’s theory of ATP synthesis. Running time: 1:59 min. Produced by Monica L. Tischler, 2017, for NCCSTS.
  • What Are Electron Transport Chains?
    This video is a synopsis of Paper #1, Mitchell (1961). Running time: 4:28 min. Produced by Monica L. Tischler, 2017, for NCCSTS.
  • What Do Electron Transport Chains Do?
    This video is a synopsis of Paper #2, Jagendorf and Uribe (1966). Running time: 1:44 min. Produced by Monica L. Tischler, 2017, for NCCSTS.
  • How Do Electron Transport Chains Do What They Do?
    This video is a synopsis of Paper #3, Racker and Stoeckenius (1974). Running time: 3:46 min. Produced by Monica L. Tischler, 2017, for NCCSTS.
  • Cytoplasmic Streaming in Fungal Hyphae
    This video shows how particles move in both directions in the thin hyphal cells of fungi. Running time: 0:46 min. Produced by Bernard Jenni, 2013.
  • Mycorrhizae I—Mycorrhizae and Environment
    This video covers the early evolution on Earth showing coevolution of plants and mycorrhizae. It begins the description of how the two symbionts form an interdependent network. Running time: 4:33 min. Produced by UFZ, 2014.
  • Mycorrhiza II—What Is It and How Does It Work?
    This video considers how fungi and plants recognize one another, how they each contribute to the partnership, and the different types of mycorrhizae, some living inside of cells and others on the surface and between cells. Running time: 10:06 min. Produced by UFZ, 2014.
  • Mycorrhizal Applications 101
    This video overview covers how farmers make use of mycorrhizae to increase crop yields. Running time: 20:00 min. Produced by ReturnProject, 2014.
  • Everybody Knows Girls Are Bad at Math, Right?! Part 1
    Trigger video following a girl through her education being given the message, directly and indirectly, that girls are gad at math. Running time: 6:26 min. Created by Maureen Leonard for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • Everybody Knows Girls Are Bad at Math, Right?! Part 4
    A recorded PowerPoint presentation examining studies of gender differences in math performance over time. Running time: 12:47 min. Created by Maureen Leonard for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
  • The Ogallala Aquifer
    This video describes how farmers in Kansas and other states above the High Plains Aquifer (Ogallala) are pumping out water for crop irrigation faster than natural seepage of rainwater can replenish it; planning is underway to manage this vital resource for sustainable farming. Running time: 5:37 min. Produced by National Science Foundation (NSF), 2013.
  • How Israeli Zoo Animals Cool Off in Summer
    This video includes examples of zoo animals, primarily large mammals (endothermic), utilizing different behavioral mechanisms to cope with heat. Running time: 2:32 min. NTDTV, 2011.
  • The Sidewinder Snake Slithers at 18 MPH
    This video offers another unique example of a behavioral adaptation in a desert ectotherm. Running time: 3:09 min. Smithsonian Channel, 2015.
  • Planet Earth—Season 1—Episode 5: Deserts
    This video introduces multiple aspects of cooling (behavioral, evaporative, radiation) through specific mammal examples. Running time: 48:00 min. Produced by BBC, 2013. The 6:30 minutes from 12:30–19:00 in the video are the most relevant. This video is not currently open access, but is widely available from streaming services and libraries.
  • Peatlands in Indonesia, Beyond the Burning Issue
    This video outlines the issues involved with slash and burn deforestation of the Malay Archipelago. Of particular value is the animation (from 3:35–5:45 min) explaining the effects of development on storage and release of carbon in peat forests. Running time: 14:53 min. Produced by The National Council for Climate Change (Indonesia), 2014.
  • The Beak of the Finch
    This video gives an overview of the work of evolutionary biologists Rosemary and Peter Grant and Darwin’s finches. Running time: 16:08 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive, 2014.
  • Spillover: Zika, Ebola and Beyond
    This documentary captures public health concerns from several infectious disease outbreaks that spilled over from animals to humans including the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak. Running time: 55:56 min. Produced by Tangled Bank Studios, 2016.
  • Did My Genes Make Me Do It?
    Geneticist Francis Collins considers whether “my genes made me do it” will ever be a good defense in law. Running time: 2:42 min. Produced by The Faraday Institute, 2010.
  • What Are Bacterial Biofilms? A Six Minute Montage
    Explanation of biofilms, excerpted from the documentary film Why Am I Still Sick? (https://www.whyamistillsick.com/). Running time: 5:59 min.
  • How Biofilms Form
    A brief animation explaining biofilm growth and the resulting problems in water systems such as cooling towers, decorative fountains, and domestic water supplies. Running time: 2:00 min. Produced by Chem-Aqua, 2016.
  • Laboratory Automation, High Throughput Screening and Drug Discovery
    A video showing HT technology in action. Running time: 3:10 min. Produced by Retisoft Inc., 2013.
  • Mouse Impervious to Scorpion's Sting
    A brief video showing the fatal interaction between a bark scorpion and a grasshopper mouse. Running time: 1:53 min. Produced by Science, 2013.
  • The Agony and Ecstasy of Capsaicin
    This video features Dr. Marco Tizzano, a researcher in chemosensory sensation, who once believed he could develop a tolerance to the painful sensations from eating chilis; he now knows better. Watch him explain how capsaicin creates a chemical cascade inside the body. Running time: 5:04 min. Produced by Luke Groskin, Science Friday, 2016.
  • Soay, The Wildest Sheep in the West
    This brief video is a fun introduction to Soay sheep. Running time: 1:11 min. Produced by BBC, 2010.
  • Animated Introduction to Cancer Biology
    This animation/video teaches the basics of how cancer forms and spreads. Running time: 12:07. Produced by CancerQuest, 2003.
  • Cancer and the Cell Cycle
    These four brief videos, each less than a minute in duration, use historical reenactments to review some of the factors that can cause cancer. Produced by Cell Biology and Cancer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 1999.
  • Cell Cycle Animations
    The first animation on this page reviews the basics of how cancer forms and spreads. Running time: 1:11 min. Produced by Cell Biology and Cancer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 1999.
  • Body-Popping Sage-Grouse
    This preview of Episode 1 of Nature’s Greatest Dancers shows courtship behavior at a lek. Running time: 2:37 min. Produced by BBC One, 2015.
  • The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection and Adaptation
    This video focuses on the rock pocket mouse to show how quickly a trait can spread through a population when natural selective pressure is strong. Running time: 10:31 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2011.
  • How We Get Our Skin Color
    This animation shows how human skin cells produce the pigment melanin and how a person’s unique skin color is determined by three primary factors: the type of melanin produced, how much of it is produced, and how it is distributed in skin cells. Running time: 3:32 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2015.
  • The Biology of Skin Color
    Anthropologist Nina Jablonski presents the evidence in support of the hypothesis that the different shades of skin color among human populations arose as adaptations to the intensity of ultraviolet radiation in different parts of the world. Running time: 18:57 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2015.
  • Mammoth Blood Protein Brought Back to Life
    This video interview with Kevin Campbell, a physiologist with the University of Manitoba, provides in-depth explanation of how his international team of researchers was able to recreate woolly mammoth hemoglobin. Running time: 15:37 min. Produced by University of Manitoba, 2010.
  • Resurrected Mammoth Blood Very Cool
    This video interview features Alan Cooper, a member of an international team of researchers, who explains how they were able to successfully resurrect the hemoglobin of a woolly mammoth. Running time: 5:17 min. Produced by Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, 2010.
  • Allopatric Speciation
    This video by the case study authors reviews the four mechanisms of allopatric speciation: founder effect, genetic drift, mutation, natural selection. Running time: 13:32 min.
  • An Interview with Dr. Dolph Schluter
    This optional video by the case study authors introduces students to the researcher who led much of the research on which the case study is based. Running time: 4:52 min.
  • The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection and Adaptation
    The rock pocket mouse is a living example of Darwin’s process of natural selection; this video explains how random changes in the genome have led to a colored coat that hides these mice from predators. Running time: 10:25 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2011.
  • Protein Structure and Folding
    This animated video reviews the four levels of protein structure with engaging drawings and gentle humor. Running time: 7:45 min. Produced by Amoeba Sisters, 2018.
  • What Makes Hair Curly? Curly Hair Science Series Pt. 2
    This brief video uses a series of drawings to explain how disulfide bonds and follicle shape impact the texture of hair. Running time: 2:47 min. Produced by Kriya Botanicals, 2014.
  • Gas Chromatography GC
    Demonstration of gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector (FID) with a brief mention of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Running time: 5:16 min. Produced by Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008.
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
    Demonstration of the standard operating procedure for the Varian Spectra Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Running time: 10:28 min. Produced Gary Mabbott, 2016.
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES)
    Demonstration of ICP-OES. Running time: 4:03 min. Produced by Virtual Soil Science Learning Resources, 2014.
  • Double Acceptance Sampling Plans
    This video explains how to construct an operating characteristic (OC) curve for a double acceptance sampling plan, using chocolate as an example. Running time: 3:39 min. Produced by Clinton Stevenson, NC State University, 2014.
  • Evaluating Acceptance Sampling Plans
    This video explains how to determine the producer's risk and consumer's risk of acceptance sampling plans, as well as how to determine the average outgoing quality (AOQ), average sample number (ASN), and average total inspection. Running time: 4:55 min. Produced by Clinton Stevenson, NC State University, 2014.
  • Determining Sample Size in Acceptance Sampling
    This video explains how to calculate the sample size for different sampling plans with various acceptance numbers, given a particular producer's risk (alpha) and acceptance quality limit (AQL). Running time: 2:47 min. Produced by Clinton Stevenson, NC State University, 2014.
  • Determining Probability of Acceptance in Sampling
    This video explains how and when to use the Poisson probability distribution as an approximation for the binomial probability distribution when constructing operating characteristic curves. Running time: 4:05 min. Produced by Clinton Stevenson, NC State University, 2014.
  • Uncovering the Behaviour of the Three-Spined Stickleback—University of Leicester
    This segment from an episode of the BBC’s The One Show shows stickleback behaviors including nest building, courtship, and reproduction. Running time: 4:35 min. Produced by BBC, 2013.
  • Kussmaul Breathing Pattern
    This video demonstrates the Kussmaul breathing pattern seen with severe acidosis such as diabetic ketoacidosis; initial pH was 6.95 and glucose was 812. Running time: 1:15 min. Produced by Larry Mellick, 2014.
  • The Circle of Willis: The Man on the Brain
    This video gives a succinct overview of the circle of Willis, employing various mnemonics including the image of a stick figure lying across the pons. Running time: 6:19 min. Produced by Aide Medicale, 2017.
  • Immune system
    A good basic introduction to the immune system. Running time: 9:40 min. Produced by Brightstorm, 2010.
  • B lymphocytes (B cells)
    An overview of humoral immunity including information about antibodies (immunoglobulins) and the development of B cells. Running time: 14:12 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and MHC II complexes
    Explains the role of antigen presenting cells in the immune response. Running time: 11:32 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Helper T cells
    Covers helper T cells and their role in the immune response. Running time: 20:33 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Cytotoxic T cells and MHC I complexes
    Explains the development of cytotoxic T cells and their method of killing. Running time: 9:15 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells
    Reviews B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and how they relate to each other in the adaptive immune response; also introduces CD4 and CD8 on T cells. Running time: 11:06 min. Produced by Khan Academy.
  • Percy Schmeiser--David versus Monsanto
    This trailer for the 2009 documentary film of the same name gives an introduction to the story on which this case study is based. Running time: 7:22 min. Produced by DenkmalFilm, 2009.
  • Susan’s Brain: The Science of Addiction
    This brief animation, featured in National Geographic’s Short Film Showcase, describes the effects of opioids on receptors and how tolerance is developed. Running time: 4:37 min. Produced by Lily Fang/Harvard X, 2017.
  • 2-Minute Neuroscience:The Cochlea
    This video discusses the cochlea. Sound waves pass through the ear and lead to the depression of the oval window, a structure found in the wall of the cochlea. The effect of these movements on sensory elements within the cochlea are described. Running time: 2 min. Produced by Neuroscientifically Challenged, 2015.
  • The Hair Cell
    This animation (MP4 format, ~4MB) ) illustrates how auditory hair cells detect motion. Running time: 1:39 min. Produced by Phil Stephens, case study co-author.
  • Horseshoe Crabs
    This video depicts a lab in Florida that studies vision in horseshoe crabs. It contains excellent photography of the eggs and how the nests are incubated and cared for. Running time: 4:44 min. Produced by ChangingSeasTV, 2014.
  • Horseshoe Crabs Mate in Massive Beach "Orgy"
    This video shows horseshoe crabs en masse in the Delaware Bay both at night and during the day. Facts about their reproduction are explained, as well as a few shots of their blue blood and its importance. Running time: 3:29 min. Produced by National Geographic, 2014.
  • Horseshoe Crab Research by Dr. Anil Chatterji
    This video depicts harvesting horseshoe crabs with nets and artificial insemination of eggs taken from the females. It also shows how the hemolymph is extracted from the horseshoe crab and how the lysate is made to test pharmaceutical preparations for bacteria. Running time: 5:14 min. Produced by Dr. Bugs Tan, 2011.
  • Crash: A Tale of Two Species | Blue Blood
    This video sets the stage for the case in that it presents all relevant issues associated with the horseshoe crab today. It shows how they are in a “tug-of war” with conflicting stakeholders such as eel fishermen, migrating birds, the biomedical industry and others. Running time: 3:16 min. Produced by PBS, 2008.
  • Rendezvous with Horseshoe Crabs
    A seventh-grade science teacher narrates this video that depicts breeding of horseshoe crabs in Delaware Bay. The teacher also explains the importance of the horseshoe crab eggs to the migrating red knots. Running time: 4:49 min. Produced by WHYY, 2011.
  • How the Eye Works Animation
    This basic video begins with an explanation of how a normal eye focuses light rays on the retina, and then explains nearsightedness and farsightedness and how corrective lenses work to improve vision. Running time: 3:22 min. Produced by AniMed, 2016.
  • The Great Elephant Census
    This video describes the work of scientists who conducted the first census of African savanna elephants in over 40 years. Running time: 8:23 min. Produced by HHMI Biointeractive, 2017.
  • Raw: Runner Hit By Deer During Race
    A runner is hit by a deer during a men’s NCAA cross country race in 2016. Running time: 0:14 min. Produced by Associated Press, 2016.
  • Diary of a Snakebite Death
    In 1957 at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, famed snake expert and herpetologist, made a detailed scientific account of the effect of venom from a snake bite in the human body—his body. Running time: 7:35 min. Produced by Science Friday, 2015.
  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
    This brief video on DIC explains the condition in which the body has both widespread clotting, leading to organ ischemia, with simultaneous depletion of clotting factors, leading to bleeding. Running time: 6:04 min. Produced by Osmosis, 2017.
  • Alternators and Batteries – How They Work
    This video explains how a lead acid car battery works and the function of the alternator in a car. Running time: 7:17 min. Produced by Donut Media, 2018.

Comments


John A. Pickrell DVM, PhD, DABT
pickrell@vet.k-state.edu
Comparative Toxicology Laboratories / College of Veterinary Medicine
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS
07/08/2008
I am a veterinarian and a toxicologist. My comments are based on the nine toxicology books (seven veterinary) I have in my office tonight, ranging from 1984 through 2008 publication dates.

There is a widespread unwillingness to go over the mechanism of formation of the toxic metabolite NAPBQI, the subject of your problem. Only one of them ventures a description (Osweiler, 1996), and his is an outline. He favors your reaction scheme, which he describes as an N-hydroxylation followed by a spontaneous rearrangement to NAPBQI. It makes sense, and I can draw the bond flow, but this is a 1996 text, and the 2000, 2006 texts on small animal toxicology don’t describe it at this level. I’m guessing because it is not known, and other aspects are more central to curing the cat. Your case got this right. It is hard to look it up, at least in my nine texts!

I have lectured on this toxicity in cats, and have 105–115 students that are 3rd-year professionals each fall. In the 5–6 times I’ve given this to 500+ students (total), I have never been asked to diagram or describe the reaction. This is fortunate, because it is described as an oxidation in the other texts. Only Osweiler is willing to guess (in print) of all our toxicologists. The rest of us are willing to say this is probably the reaction, or at least that we can’t really argue against it coherently.

I’m guessing that hepatotoxicity was emphasized because humans and almost all other species except cats get it.

Different from your case is that cats get methemoglobinemia, which is an oxidation of hemoglobin so that it can’t carry oxygen. Most cats don’t show liver toxicity, unless they are resistant to methemoglobinemia. Cat hemoglobin is more sensitive than dogs or humans because it has more available sulfhydryls to oxidize, and cats are much more sensitive than dogs to Tylenol toxicity. One-half of a tablet and extra strength Tylenol would have been more than enough. Your case was correct in that. The reaction of the mom is typical, because this toxicity and its extent are not well known.

When about one-third of the hemoglobin is oxidized cats show clinical signs, which are cyanosis, apathy, and muddy mucous membranes. Blood is usually chocolate brown, so the veterinarian was wise to draw it in your case. Explaining it to the client is a nice touch, but it doesn’t happen in all cases.

Cats often present with some thrashing about (not mentioned in your case, or most texts), methemoglobinemia, apathy or depression, and muddy mucous membranes (chocolate brown) that are hard to see unless you know where to look. Thus, your presentation was typical, not really all that mild. If they’ve had Tylenol and have clinical signs, treatment is needed, and that was well done in this case.

The prognosis is fair to good with optimal treatment and the antidote, n-acetyl cysteine, which replaces glutathione in NPPBQI detoxification and favors synthesis of more glutathione, which does the same. Again, explaining that the antidote restarts what the cat would have done if it didn’t run out of glutathione is useful (any teachable moment is cool to capitalize on), but it doesn’t occur in all cases.

We do treat with charcoal to tie up remaining Tylenol, but your case was not about this, and didn’t have it as a learning objective.

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Shannon McNew
smcnew@semo.edu
Department of Biology
Southeast Missouri State University
Cape Girardeau, MO
06/21/2010
I used this case in two sections of my non-major university course titled "Biology for Living." This was my first attempt at using or incorporating a case study into my courses. The students seemed very receptive to the idea. After I gave them part one of the study, they asked lots of questions about the fish. It got them very interested. Most (if not all) had never heard of the coelacanth. I added to the pictures by pulling up photos of coelacanths on the computer and projecting them for the students to see during each part. I followed up the case with a homework assignment. They had to report on recent research or happenings with regard to the coelacanth fish.

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Jane Johnson-Murray
jane.johnsonmurray@hccs.edu
Biology/Nutrition
Houston Community College System
Houston, TX
10/24/2005
This case reminded me of the "case" of a child here in Houston having his arm swatted off by a tiger. I rewrote the case using excerpts from newspaper articles published about the accident and the recovery of the child. These included interviews with the physicians involved in the implantation. I renamed the case "The Tiger and the Tot" and wrote it as an interrupted case. The students worked in groups for 15 minutes, then we discussed the case as a group.

I used some of the questions from the original case, but since I offer this earlier in the Anatomy and Physiology course than did the original author, some of the questions did not apply. Some of my students remembered this event and I think that helped stir interest.

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Lili Fox Vélez, Ph.D.
rhetrx@verizon.net
Biomedical Writing Track / Professional Writing Program
Towson University
Towson, MD
01/17/2009
I’ve used this case with my Rhetoric and Science students to illustrate the differences between the persuasive power of advertising and the kinds of arguments made with scientific data. These students had been drilled about appropriate uses of data, although not all of them had taken college level courses in chemistry.

This evening, I noticed the following article about lawsuits against the Coca-Cola Corporation over its marketing of VitaminWater as a “healthy alternative” to sodas; thought you might find it an interesting addition to the case: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/135816.php.

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Margit Brazda Poirier
mpoirier@monroecc.edu
Department of Biology
Monroe Community College
Rochester, NY
09/22/2005
I found this case to be a very effective way to teach the Scientific Method to a group of non-major biology students. This is the first case I have taught since attending a Chautauqua Short Course this past summer with Kipp Herreid, and it worked extremely well. I asked the 23 students to self-select themselves into groups of 3 or 4 and then worked through the case with class discussion following each of Parts I–III. We did not have enough time to complete part IV in the 50 minute time frame.

I found that the case questions yielded some interesting and creative solutions. In many cases it offered up a springboard for discussion of local migration and PCB contamination issues. Students also asked about PCB contamination in Great Lakes Fish and other pertinent topics. This is one of the many topics that will be addressed throughout the semester.

Rather than use the last few minutes of class on Part IV (though it seems a valuable thing to do), we discussed the advantages and shortfalls of the Scientific Method. Learning the Scientific Method through case participation will likely help the students complete future labs, for which they will need to construct hypotheses, design experiments, etc.

I found the referenced Nature (2003) article to be helpful and did not use any additional resources in class given the time constraint.

-----------------------------
Brian J. Rybarczyk, Ph.D.
brian_rybarczyk@med.unc.edu
SPIRE Postdoctoral Fellow/Assistant Professor
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Shaw University
Chapel Hill, NC
01/27/2008
I recently used the case study "Memory Loss in Mice" for one of my courses and thought that you might be interested in some evaluation and feedback on how I used the case.

I am currently teaching an upper level undergraduate biology course entitled "Molecular Basis of Disease." The course is being taught over simultaneous videoteleconferencing between Shaw University in Raleigh, NC and UNC—Chapel Hill in Chapel Hill, NC. The distance education studios are equipped with VTC equipment and SMARTBoards connected through Netmeeting. We have 4 students at Shaw and 18 students at UNC enrolled in the course. I am the instructor at Shaw University and my collegue Dr. Jory Weintraub is the instructor at UNC. We each lead discussions on various topics looking at the molecular mechanisms of disease and we have included one session on Research Methods and Animal Models. To introduce this topic, I used your case to get students thinking about how to interpret scientific data, draw conclusions, and describe how animals are used in biomedical research. This simple case provided much discussion and interaction between students at both sites. Although I happened to use it in an upper level undergraduate course, it certainly could be used in either undergrad or grad level courses. Thank you for providing a great case for our course!

I am currently implementing other cases from the Buffalo Case Study site as well as writing my own that I can hopefully share with others at the Buffalo site.

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Nadine Lehrer
lehr0037@umn.edu
Forest Resources
University of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN
02/03/2005
We used this case on the first day of class as an introduction to the role of ethics in environmental science. It worked well because students were able to be active right away and to identify ethical issues that we could then discuss more in class. We followed the teaching notes reasonably well, and I think that worked out. Thank you!

-----------------------------
Barbara Biglan
biglan@chatham.edu
Education
Chatham University
Pittsburgh, PA
06/26/2007
I used this case in a cooperative experience with a middle school science teacher and a Chatham colleague. We broke the case into smaller “chunks” that would fit in a 40-minute class period. At the end of each chunk we raised questions for the students to consider, and they wrote responses in a science journal. We created charts to help the students organize information and their answers. We also located and designed activities that corresponded to sections of the case. For example, when the case mentioned dissolved oxygen, we had the students do a hands-on activity to explore the concept of dissolved oxygen. We also used the 5E Model of Inquiry paying particular attention to 2 of the 5 essential features of application and extension. [Editor‘s Note: see http://www1.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/science/instr/teaching5Es.htm for a brief description of this model.] Through the process of exploring the case, students refined their initial hypothesis and cited the evidence for their decisions (again, all of this was recorded in their journals). At the end of the case study, the students had a field trip to an area called Nine Mile Run which empties into the Monongahela River. It was, in the past, a source of contamination and a ”fish kill“ location. It has since been cleaned up and no longer serves as a pollution source.

By taking this case in smaller chunks and exploring vocabulary when necessary, we felt the case was an excellent way to engage middle school students in the process of inquiry.

There is an excellent book, And the Waters Turned to Blood: The Ultimate Biological Threat by K. Baker (Simon and Shuster, 1997), that gives more context to the case and some interesting information about the health effects of this study on the scientists who conducted the research. Another book that might be of interest is one we used by Jean Craighead George, Who Really Killed Cock Robin? An Ecological Mystery published by Harper Collins Children’s Books in 1991.

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Susan Choi
schoi@camdencc.edu
Department of Chemistry
Camden County College
Blackwood, NJ
10/01/2006
I have used this case with my Organic Chemistry II class. Many of my students are pre-pharmacy, so having a medical tie-in increases the students’ interest in the case. The case also forces the students to recall material previously learned (E/Z designations) while learning new concepts (such as lactam/lactim). I allow the students to form groups and work together outside of class. They submit their answers to the questions which count toward part of their grade on their first exam.

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Jody M. Modarelli
ModarelliJM@hiram.edu
Departments of Biology and Chemistry
Hiram College
Hiram, OH
09/19/2008
I adapted the case study, “The Chemistry of Cooley’s Anemia,” for my Basic Biochemistry course consisting of juniors and seniors. The students, in groups of 3–6, were given bits of information allowing them to solve for the disease and related questions using the internet and their biochemistry book. The class reconvened the last 15 minutes of class and chatted about the ethical issues pertinent to the case. I also introduced the concept of collaborative efforts in science as a precursor to drug discovery. It was a hit! I plan on using three additional case studies throughout the semester.

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John A. Pickrell DVM, PhD, DABT
pickrell@vet.k-state.edu
Comparative Toxicology Laboratories / College of Veterinary Medicine
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506-5606
07/30/2008
This is an interesting case. Typical cases of crocidolite (very small amphibole; deposited in deep lung) were seen in daughters whose fathers worked with ship insulation of crocidolite asbestos from South Africa (it is called “Cape Blue” crocidolite). The fathers came home and whacked their shirts on the porch as their daughters were waiting to hug them. Twenty-five to 40 years later, the girls, now mothers, developed mesothelioma and often died.

Until recently, crocidolite was the only asbestos with direct cause from the asbestos alone. Recently, erionite asbestos (not mentioned in your research) was found to be the source of additional lung cancers. Chrysotile is the source of more than 80% of all asbestos in the U.S. It is serpentine and therefore too curvy to deposit in sufficient quantity to work its way into the thoracic mesothelium. Amosite asbestos is the right shape, but not small enough for maximum deposition, as is tremolite. Grunerite is too large for maximum deposition and not as durable as amosite, chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos.

To answer your questions, if I were an expert witness, or jury member, I’d like to know what kind of asbestos. Chrysotile asbestos for this chain of toxicity would be a hard sell, it’s hard to inhale enough. Only crocidolite and erionite have been traced directly to human lung cancer.

To establish liability, one would need to examine possible release scenarios. Usually chrysotile makes it much harder to convince anyone of this type of exposure, because it is hard to see the potential threat. It’s not small enough or durable enough (it is more rapidly broken down in water (days and weeks, as opposed to more than years).

Asbestos with cement is less toxic than say that which comes from brake linings. Brake linings grind and make asbestos have smaller cross sectional area, depositing in deeper lung. Thus, cement companies with the wrong asbestos are relatively hard to pin down and collect on.

I know of two real cases where there was almost no doubt. One was described in the first paragraph and involved chrysotile asbestos. The second one was in Turkey. Only husbands, not wives or children, got mesothelioma. Eech day the males that got this had eaten lunch on a rock next to a cool waterfall pool and went swimming there time permitting. The wives and kids lived some distance away and weren’t exposed. More than half of the men got mesotheliomas and it took a long time to track it down (>5–10 years). It was finally identified as erionite asbestos, an amphibole asbestos, which has quite a small odiameter. It was more durable than grunerite (from Minnesota mines). The exposure was high, over very long time periods.

In my opinion, this chrysotile is an interesting case because the exposure scenario was right and had happened, but with an entirely different asbestos, usually not found in the U.S. Secondly, it was an asbestos containing cement with a complicated composition, less likely to cause mesithelioma. Finally, it was a serpentine asbestos, not an amphibole.

They could probably find out which asbestos, because it usually does not cause mesothelioma and the company knows this. Also, unless one had documentation a high percentage of U.S. asbestos is chrysotile, the most curved and least durable of the asbestos.

The questions asked in this case were relevant to those which would be asked in real life and the scenario is realistic.

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Laura Hoopes
lhoopes@pomona.edu
Department of Biology
Pomona College
Claremont, CA 91711
11/19/2009
This case has students prepare to simulate a hearing on possible treatment of Eric for his ALS using stem cells. Since he is Catholic, there is a religious dimension to consider. It includes good witnesses such as James Thompson, John Gearhart, and Leon Kass. I find it very helpful for non-majors classes in stem cells and human cloning. It isn’t quite up to date, though, having been prepared in 2005.

Suggestions

I have added some characters:

  • Shinyu Yamanaka, who in 2007 was able to reprogram skin cells to pluripotency.
  • Elizabeth Blackburn, the scientist Bush fired from his ethics committee.
  • Jonathan Moreno, Obama’s organizer of his Bioethics Committee.

New References

I like to have the students do this case while they are reading Christopher Scott’s book Stem Cells Now: From the Experiment That Shook the World to the New Politics of Life (Pi Press, 2006) and papers updating it.

I also like to use Potent Biology, the videos produced by HHMI on stem cells, which are available for free from the HHMI web site.

Also the following articles:

  • The Yamanaka paper: Takahashi, K., Tanabe, K., Ohnuki, M., Narita, M., Ichisaka, T., Tomoda, K., and Yamanaka, S. 2007. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 131(5):861–72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019
  • Ethical issues re iPS cells: Insoo, Hyun. 2008. Stem cells from skin cells: the ethical questions. Hastings Center Report 38, no. 1:20–22.

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Jim Jordan
jjordan@lawrenceville.org
Science
The Lawrenceville School
Lawrenceville, NJ
06/07/2006
I teach at a highly selective secondary school. In our ninth grade science course, we are teaching critical thinking skills through the use of medical case studies. While teaching the human physiology systems, we have students work their way through medical cases. In each case the students must take information provided to them and make a reasonable inference (several hypotheses/diagnoses) based on that information. Then they must request further information (lab tests, physical tests, interview questions) and they must give good reasoning for why they are requesting that information. At the end of the case, students must present either in writing or verbally an explanation of their thinking process from start to finish.

Thanks for making these cases available.

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Una Bray
ubray@skidmore.edu
Mathematics Department
Skidmore College
Saratoga Springs, NY 12866
04/18/2001
This case was a big success in my course "Disease and the Environment." I was searching for a way to engage the students in talking about the choice of research population, formulation of research questions, data gathering and interpretation, presentation of research findings, and the reporting of scientific results in the popular press. All this was to prepare them for their own case studies. The class was also an unusually quiet one, given the subject matter, so I was also trying to liven things up a bit. This case was the perfect vehicle for all of the above.

I followed the questions and teaching notes very carefully. The students were given the case five days in advance of the discussion and they submitted their assigned critiques as scheduled. Then we turned to the question of who wrote the story. Things heated up very quickly and there was a great deal of discussion surrounding each of the suggested questions. I remained the silent recorder of comments most of the time. I found it very useful to list responses on the blackboard so that the class could see the twists and turns that ensued. We arrived at the predicted "wide range of answers to the question about validity" of conclusions. The class agreed that taking a statistics course, as one-third of the group had, would help in this type of analysis. Together they formulated a long list of questions involving confounding variables, researcher bias, and missing information. They agreed that they would like to see the original papers on which the news release was based.

The class lasted a very short 85 minutes. The students were engaged and active the entire time. I agree with the author that this case encourages independent thinking in students and reduces their fear of attacking statistical statements. The group work on this case was both liberating and empowering for the class as a whole.

This is a very well conceived and useful case study. My personal field test was a rousing success. I'll use it again the next time this course is offered and I plan to use it in my introductory statistics class and have passed it on to two colleagues who also teach statistics who are very excited about using a case like this.

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Chaya Nanavati
cnanavati@ohlone.edu
Department of Biology
Ohlone College
Fremont, CA
05/15/2006
I used this case at the end of a semester-long non-majors course on Heredity, Evolution, and Society. We spent about two hours on this case. Students were split into groups of four or five with each group having at least one strong student. I also let each group know that it was important for everybody in the group to understand the problems and answers since I could call on anybody to give the consensus answer.

My students loved this case study since it really helped to tie in concepts that we had gone over all semester and that they had trouble with. In particular, the idea of X-linked versus recessive, writing genotypes, and identifying carriers. This was a great way to have them construct pedigrees and go over the basic concepts of genetics in time for the final.

Thanks for writing this well-designed case.

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Huma Musarrat Khan, Associate Professor
huma.anat@gmail.com
Department of Anatomy
Foundation University Medical College
Rawalpindi-Pakistan
02/14/2010
I modified one of your cases titled, “The Case of the Dividing Cell: Mitosis and Meiosis in the Cellular Court” by Clyde Freeman Herreid and used it while discussing mitosis and meiosis with first year students of medical school. The total number of students was 90. The students found the case interesting and enjoyed the teaching session. At the end of the session, I collected a “feedback proforma,” the results of which I wish to publish in a medical journal along with a discussion of the use of case methods for teaching anatomy.

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Katherine Griffith, Teacher
kagriff@swva.net
Science
Christian Heritage Academy
Rocky Mount, VA
01/11/2006
I loved this! I used this in class, and had the students who had a dramatic flair read for each of the characters. I then assigned the questions for homework. I think it really helped my 10th grade biology kids understand the concepts better. Thank you, Dr. Herreid, for writing this and letting me use it!

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Carrie Griffith, Teacher
cgriffith2@rccsd.org
Department of Science
Red Creek High School
Red Creek, NY
04/07/2004
I used this case as an introduction to mitosis and meiosis. The only alteration I made was to place the names of the characters next to their speaking parts. My students seemed to like it. I had my principal in observing me and he also liked it and thought it was a good intro. I had the jury members act like real jury members and take notes so that if they had to render a decision they had notes to work from.

Over all it was well received and I will use it in the future!

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Eva M. Brown, Instructor
educarefortexas@aol.com
Anatomy & Physiology
American Commercial College
San Angelo, TX
01/11/2006
With this case students were grouped and mocked an interdisciplinary team. The team captain and students read the case together. Each team member was given a question to research in order to arrive at a logical conclusion. Students were permitted five weeks to complete the assignment.

Use of the case presented the opportunity to work together as a team and helped develop research skills. Students were able to chart data. Students were also able to assemble mock charts.

We cannot thank you enough for the use of the case studies.

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Teresa Anziano
teresa.anziano@hwdsb.on.ca
Healthcare Support Program
Hamilton-Wentworth School District
Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3L1 Canada
09/22/2009
Excellent case study! The dialogue format engages the reader and makes learning more interesting. I followed the notes to the teacher and inserted mini review lessons on the anatomy of the heart and circulatory system, which enhanced the students' understanding of the case. I used unlabelled diagrams, which we labelled together as a class. I involved the students throughout by having them go up to the white board and write definitions/answers to questions. I really liked how it shed light on the differences between men and women with respect to their symptoms of heart disease.

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Donna Brunelli
dbrunelli@allegany.edu
Biological Sciences
Allegany College of Maryland
Somerset, PA
04/17/2006
I used this case study in my A&P class after we finished reviewing cardiology. The students enjoyed it. I assigned them the task of creating an information brochure as suggested in the assignment section of the case study. I received some very creative and professional-looking pamphlets.

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Merle S. Bruno
mbruno@hampshire.edu
Professor of Biology
Hampshire College
Amherst, MA
05/28/2003
I used the case, "Wake-Up Call," in a class called "Topics in Women’s Health" and it was a real shocker for the students, who all pretty much decided the main character was having panic attacks, an anxiety disorder, or menopause symptoms. Heart "problems" was one of their hypotheses, but not a strong one until near the end. I adapted the case to fit the format I use in class, so I didn’t use it exactly the same way, with the heart as a character. I liked that idea, but it didn’t fit the way we’d been working. It was a terrific case and the students were very challenged and learned a lot. They asked me if this was based on a real person or if it was constructed to make particular points. I didn’t know the answer to that. I found (as I find with any case I use) that I had to make up some family history and life style answers to respond to students’ questions. It’s a little like writing a soap opera, but kind of fun. Thanks to the case authors and the Center for this case, as it formed a big part of my class this spring.

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David Funge
dfunge@bedford.ac.uk
Department of Biology
Bedford College
Bedford, UK
03/09/2006
Despite the fact that we are in the UK, the group of ecology students entered into this case study wholeheartedly.

The progressive disclosure of the Historical Updates enabled them to build towards the learning outcomes of their “Understanding Ecology and Conservation” unit.

As our sessions are 90 minutes, we introduced the case study in the latter part of the first session (after a previous topic had been debriefed) and covered the Historical Updates in the whole of session 2, because the groups got VERY involved!

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Luciana Garrido, High School Teacher
lugarrid@yahoo.com
Biology Department
Secondary School Number 21
Morón, Buenos Aires, Argentina
12/12/2007
I’m a biology teacher in Argentina, South America. I was able to use this case by translating it into Spanish (our language here) and introducing some changes about hormones and personalizations for my students to feel the situation as closer to their lives. My intention was to work with high school students about sex determination, secondary effects of hormones, and social aspects of sex in young people. I think it’s a very interesting case and also a very interesting way to teach, using case studies. Thank you very much.

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Randy Mitchell
rjm2@uakron.edu
Biology Department
University of Akron
Akron, OH
01/16/2003
I modified this case slightly for use in my conservation biology class (emphasizing the conservation, downplaying the other issues). I have used it twice, and it was a big hit with the 12-15 students each time. In 2001, it was the very first case I ever used, and I simply asked students to read the case, and decide what they needed to do as conservation professionals (in small groups), including:

  1. the problem to be solved,
  2. how to solve it,
  3. what other information is needed, and
  4. the approximate cost.
The remarkably good response, and my impression that in this one class session they satisfied me that they knew enough basic biology in week 2 to allow us to move on to the non-biology parts of conservation, sold me on cases in general. This year (2003), I first had them think about the issue alone for 10 minutes, writing down some general ideas. Then they did the assignment from the previous year. It was even better this year—several students came up afterward and told me it was one of their best sessions in college.

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William Siebert
wsiebert@hs.acsd.dcboces.org
Science Department
Arlington High School
LaGrangeville, NY
10/11/2002
Here in Dutchess County, NY (prime Lyme Disease territory), this provided a very useful and relevant first case in a "Contemporary Issues in Biology" course. I did the case pretty much as offered, with each group presenting the topic as a skit, video, or PowerPoint presentation with accompanying handout and bibliography. It was very well received.

I changed the scenario a bit to get more of a bioethics spin on it: "You are a parent who wishes to send a child to a summer camp. The summer camp requires proof of Lyme immunization. Will you have your child immunized or not?"

After all of the group presentations (each group gave a recommendation), I asked the students to make their decisions and give a reason. We then had an open discussion, after which they are asked to again make a decision and give the reason for it. I then changed the scenario slightly:

  • the camp is a music/sports camp and participation almost guarantees the attendees a full scholarship to a prestigious music/sports college program;
  • the camp is a computer camp, which will donate $5K worth of computer equipment to the sponsoring school district; or
  • you want to get rid of your kid for the summer so you and the spouse can go away and work on saving a failing marriage.

This tests to see how many students change their minds when they see other factors and values coming into play.

Some saw no ethical dilemma here until I explained that I know another public school biology teacher in upstate New York who had her children home-schooled rather than submit them to vaccinations on the basis of problems with animal testing, putting foreign substances into the body, etc. I also referred to a "Law and Order" episode on television where parents are charged with failure to get medical attention for their child on religious grounds. It didn't specifically relate to vaccinations, but the principle is the same. Upon hearing these, the students saw how some people could have an ethical problem with this.

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James Gilham
gillie@dadeschools.net
Science
Design & Achitecture Sr. High
Miami, FL
02/23/2010
Showed the Werner Herzog Film Encounters at the End of The World. Excellent film created tremendous interest in the problems of human influence in a “pristine” setting. Student worksheets were easy to follow and adapt. Loved it.

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Monica LeClerc
mleclerc@sunyjefferson.edu
Lab Science
Jefferson Community College
Watertown, NY
02/11/2004
I used the case in a majors general biology course to introduce our study of bacteria. Our next lab will be bacterial morphology, culture, and water quality testing for coliform. I thought this lab was a great way to introduce the concepts and application in a realistic context. I used it as written and students responded to it very well. They enjoyed the analysis and discussion but felt that they would have liked more time (our class periods are 55 minutes). I too felt like we could have used more time—there is no reason we can’t discuss this further next class. I also think with more experience I will get better at facilitating the discussion.

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Richard W. Fardy
rfardy@wilmington.k12.ma.us
Science Department
Wilmington High School
Wilmington, MA 01887
03/14/2009
I stumbled on the website and case quite by fortuitous accident while looking for a good “hook” or “grabber” for the study of the endocrine system in my junior/senior anatomy and physiology classes at Wilmington High School. Years ago, I had the idea that medical case reports could play a valuable teaching role in teaching A&P to high school students and have modified several published medical case reports (making them into comprehensible abstracts) for that purpose. I think this one is great and can’t wait to try it out with my students.

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Chaya Nanavati
cnanavati@ohlone.edu
Department of Biology
Ohlone College
Fremont, CA
05/15/2006
I used this case in a non-majors class on Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. We went over this case a week after they had covered antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. One of the things that puzzled my students was the fact that Kayla died in spite of the fact that the S. aureus that caused her infection was susceptible to vancomycin. In fact, at the end of the case, Collins’ friend, Kurt, suggests a combination treatment of vancomycin/cefazolin, although he cautions her about the possibility of vancomycin-resistance. I would love to get some feedback/clarification/thoughts on this.

Overall, my students love the case studies since they help to tie things together and help them see the relevance of the material presented in lectures. Thanks very much.

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Susan Reynolds
sreynolds@robertmorris.edu

Robert Morris College
Springfield, IL
12/16/2004
I used this case in an introductory microbiology class consisting primarily of medical assistants in July of 2004. This actually brought together many of the concepts we had discussed. Overall the students really enjoyed this case; however, they were upset when they discovered the patient died. They also wanted some information as to how her hip joint became infected — was it due to an injury to the joint or another infection somewhere else?

I presented this case over a period of four class periods and they seemed to like that. I enjoyed using it and will probably use it again as a project the next time I teach this class.

I may also use this as a basis for homework — such as doing a one-page paper on the different antibiotics mentioned or for further research by the student on MRSA.

Thank you so much for this website.

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Patrick Alarcon
palarcon@ait.echalk.com
Science Department
Academy of Information Technology and Engineering
Stamford, CT 06905
04/21/2008

It was my intention to give my students the opportunity to experience "real-time" issues in environmental science. This case study piqued their interest to the point that they actually wanted to "act out" each person’s position in the case, including the narrator’s part.

I plan to have my students present this case as a short "play" to be performed at our neighboring campus middle school. Prior to the performance, the narrators will explain the profiles for each member in the play. At the conclusion, other students will form stations within the classroom and ask the middle school audience the questions that are included in the case study. The purpose of this is to develop a discussion session rather than just an informal assessment. This is planned as a culminating activity after my students have completed their discussions on the case. They all need to be well versed on the issue so they can monitor and adjust at their individual middle school discussion stations.

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Sara Morgans
sara.morgans@canberrac.act.edu.au
Faculty of Science
The Canberra College
Woden, Australia
03/31/2005
This case was used as an assessment instrument in a year 12 biology class. It was a very successful way to gauge a deep understanding in students.

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Eva Oberdoerster
eoberdor@mail.smu.edu
Department of Biology
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX
04/19/2002
The "story" of the case-study was given to the students as part of their last semester exam in a Human Physiology course often taken by our pre-med/vet/dental school students. Students had been told that there would be one question that would integrate concepts over the entire semester (this was greeted with moans and groans). Of the numerous questions that Dr. Strong had listed with the case study, I used seven for the exam. Each question was worth between 1 and 4 points, depending on difficulty and length of answer expected.

Student responses were mixed. I had two Varsity rowers in the class of 35, and also Varsity swimmers. The athletes and their close friends were enthusiastic about the question (very relevant to their lives). Those students who like to memorize instead of learn and apply material were not happy with the question. The entire exam was 1 1/2 hours and included 35 other short answer/matching/multiple choice questions.

Since I return exams to students, future semesters of Human Physiology will have had access to the exam and will have had access to this case study. Next year I plan on using this as a "review" question in the form of a group project. I have not yet decided how to exactly assign this, but will involve setting aside a day of lecture for students to present their answers to two to three of the questions/group. The remainder of the class is expected to agree/disagree with a group. I may ask one group to answer one question completely incorrectly to "test" the remainder of the class to make sure that they are awake/paying attention.

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Thomas Fleetwood
tfleetwood@charterschool.org
Science Department
Charter School of Wilmington
Wilmington, DE
11/11/2005
First, I want to thank you all tremendously for the use of this excellent site and material. I have no doubt that this is one of the best ways for students to learn to actually understand and remember the material and be able to apply it to real life situations.

Regarding this case — mine is a high school anatomy class consisting of 11th & 12th grade students. They were excited to receive the case and related to the individual in the case and his circumstance. As we started they were full of ideas. As they completed each part I questioned the group members and asked for explanations/clarifications, etc., before they received the next part. The students started to get frustrated at the process when they weren’t "told" the answers and needed to do more research. But then they were quite proud when they finally got the answers and could explain why. So, in all, they seemed to go through the cycle of excitement, frustration, excitement, frustration, excitement.... Sort of like real life.

They did have particular problems with the CT scan. This wasn’t because they had never read one - they actually did a very nice job figuring that part out. (In fact, I gave most of them the CT scan before the blood work so they weren’t quite as sure of the answer yet.) Their difficulty rather resulted from the fact that the upper GI image seems to be flipped backwards from the Chest image. In other words, the right and left side of the body are reversed in the images.

Outside of patient history I’m not sure there is any reasonable way for them to know it is the patient’s “left” lung. And even with the patient history it could actually be that he damaged his "right" lung when he was smashed against the boards even though he was hit with the stick on his left side. So, as a suggestion, I would like to see that image flipped. I also believe, although I am not certain, that these CT scan images are typically viewed as if you are looking up from the patients feet, thus putting the patient’s left on the viewing right. If that is in fact the case both images should reflect that. [Editor’s Note: The relevant portion of the case has been revised as a result of this comment.]

As a fun follow-up activity I had the students write an “Ode to Rick” where they wrote a poem summarizing the story, the test results and their meaning, the treatment and prognosis. They really enjoyed it and it helped me see what they understood and still needed some help with. If you would like to see these "poems" for a little chuckle they can be found on my website at http://www.docfleetwood.net/anatomy/odetorick.htm

Again, this case was done beautifully and I highly appreciate the time and effort put into it.

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Darlene McLeish, Teacher
mcleishd@wcschools.com
Health Science
Wilson Central High
Lebanon, TN
12/04/2004
I used this case in my A&P class made up of 11th and 12th graders. I loved it since it really made them think. They analyzed it to death, trying to figure out the diagnosis. It was great! Thanks!

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Marie Panec
ay757@lafn.org
Biology Department
Moorpark College
city/state
10/20/2010
I adapted the Benign Hamburger case for a microbiology course I teach and used it as a case study in epidemiology. Students thoroughly enjoyed it, and felt that it covered several aspects of epidemiology that they hadn't previously considered.

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Kathy Zanin, Assistant Professor
kathy.zanin@citadel.edu
Department of Biology
The Citadel
Charleston, SC
02/23/2006
The students enjoyed this case. I think it was well done, and it is a fun way to learn.

I made only minimal modifications:

  1. I asked my students to read relevant passages from their textbook (Kuby’s Immunology) rather than consulting the online resources.
  2. I used the info you provided online to create a PowerPoint presentation, and I added a few images that I got from a Google image search for a normal baby boy, a child getting an ear exam, a photo of David Vettle, etc.
  3. I have a small class, so we worked on the case as a whole, and the class split into smaller groups just to read and study the possible causes of SCID.
My students posed an excellent question about the bone marrow transplant treatment: If the patient has SCID, why does the bone marrow donor have to be a tissue match? How can a person with SCID reject foreign transplants?

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Bruce A. Fall
bafall@umn.edu
Biology Program
University of Minnesota
Minneaplois, MN
01/23/2008
On two occasions I have used this case within the first class of a large introductory biology course for non-majors. I use a somewhat abbreviated version (I project the narrative and questions from Part I, then II, and then III), and it takes about 25 minutes to complete. As intended, the case serves as an introduction to the scientific process, as well as one of the first group activities that students do. It is very effective. Turning students loose in small groups (consisting of their immediate neighbors) on the study questions of Part I results in instantaneous “buzz,” and the hypotheses generated are typically thoughtful and reasonable. I suspect my enthusiasm for this case is shared by many others—kudos to the author.

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Susan Choi
schoi@mail.camdencc.edu
Department of Chemistry
Camden County College
Blackwood, NJ
10/13/2003
I used this case study the first day of class for my sections of non-science majors (20 students per section). The case study was very popular and the students enjoyed being "detectives" along with Semmelweis. It was a great way to introduce the scientific method. The study generated a lively discussion and great student participation. It also set the tone for the semester: encouraging class participation, fostering critical thinking, and promoting group discussion. The level of the material was appropriate for an introductory course. The case study/discussion proceeded very smoothly. The time estimates in the teaching notes were accurate.

In each of my classes, one or two students immediately suggested that washing hands might be important or that germs were being spread. This can be handled by asking what evidence makes that seem important (early in the case study there is none), or by pointing out that Semmelweis and the other doctors did not know about germs.

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Clayton Faivor
cfaivor@ellsworth.k12.mi.us
Science Teacher
Ellsworth Community School
Ellsworth, MI
11/04/2010
I used this case in my Physics class. I found out about these cases from my college professor. My high school students really enjoyed it and learned a lot. I can't wait to use other studies that I find on your site.

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Kerry Breno
kbreno@ups.edu
Chemistry Department
University of Puget Sound
Tacoma, WA
04/16/2003
The case was used in a small class of second semester chemistry for non-majors. Polymer chemistry was covered briefly before the assignment.

The student references were handed out in class. The class was split into groups of four with one group of five. Each person was assigned to a role: mother, consumer reports scientist, plastics industry rep., judge (moderator for the discussion), and in the group of five an outside scientist. Each student was to read the references and think about points which they would like to ask the other experts (in the form of five questions). In addition they were to prepare answers from their assigned perspective which they felt might be addressed. The judge was given the task of coming up with the method to present the case with the group.

On the next class period, the groups discussed the case. Occasionally, groups needed assistance in discovering what might be valid arguments in the consumer report. Once the discussions died down I presented highlights of the main points that one might want to consider. Then a vote was cast about who would use polycarbonate bottles. Surprisingly, only a small portion of the students would continue using the bottles even though they believed that the consumer report case was not supported by facts. The students then recieved a copy of the summary of the RTI report given in 2001 confirming the safety of polycarbonate bottles.

The case was well received and very engaging.

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Linda Hall
linda.ford@7hills.org
Science Department
Seven Hills School
Cincinnati, Ohio
08/23/2000
I plan to use this case study with my first-year high school students during their polymer unit. Not only will it be a great timely connection but it also involves another important concept in my course - levels of detection and risk factors. I read about your site in C&E News. What wonderful resources. I will share the knowledge of this site and this particular case study with my high school colleagues at our first educators' discussion group of my local ACS. My polymer unit looks at some physical/chemical properties which distinguish the six major plastics. I then have the students study modifications to the slime recipe to produce products of greater viscosity or bouncibility. They design their own testing methods and measurement protocols. We will then end with this case study. This part of the course happens during the second quarter.

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Dietrich Leutelt
leutelt-mainz@t-online.de
Sales Manager

Mainz/Germany
01/06/2004
I’m a sales manager for (among other glass products) baby bottles made of special glass (borosilicate glass with expansion factor 3.3). Although many Americans may not be aware of this, such bottles have been in use for generations (since the 1920s), especially in Germany. The company I work for still produces such bottles, as do certain other factories in France, the Czech Republic, Italy, China, etc. In fact, consumption of these bottles is still in the double digit range of millions. In my opinion, bottles made out of borosilicate glass are preferable to those made out of ordinary soda lime glass due to the bad thermal shock resistance of the latter which does not allow for optimal hygenic cleaning.

The case study highlights six points which, to my understanding, are related to chemistry. But the "development of critical thinking skills..." should also address political, commercial and general environmental aspects, too. Historically, these factors frequently have triggered more profound research. After Our Stolen Future was translated into Japanese, health authorities in Japan stopped use of PC (polycarbonate) dishes in schools. The baby bottle market in Japan, which formerly manufactured according to the ratio of 25% glass - 75% plastic, subsequently changed to 80% glass - 20% plastic. In Europe, however, the effect has not been the same; here the market is still 25% glass - 75% plastic.

Basic worries, as well as proved and unproved statements, are often juxtaposed with the power and persuasion of industry representatives. Such basic worries apparently linger even after evidence is examined, as witnessed by the final vote of students at the end of the case (see Comment 1: "Surprisingly, only a small portion of the students would continue using the bottles even though they believed that the consumer report case was not supported by facts").

The American Plastics Council, although encouraging inquiries into "the truth," continues to defend the image of the plastic industry. However, this is not an area for blind trust since there is a long list of industry "trust me’s" that have been heard before: nuclear power, agent orange, car exhaust, tobacco smoke.... In the end, who evaluates (and who should evaluate) what is most important for a given population? Administrators representing the public health? Members of the relevant business community? I think that the case discussion should be broadened to include such a range of issues, on both the "pro" and "con” sides" when analyzing health issues.

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Judy
mcleishd@wcschools.com
Health Science
Wilson Central High School
Lebanon, TN
08/15/2003
I used “Lost in the Desert” in my A&P class of 11th & 12th graders. I was impressed by how they responded to it. I did not adapt the case, but used it as suggested in the teaching notes for a discussion on homeostasis. Anyway, it went well! Thanks!

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Bill Freese
billfreese@prodigy.net
Senior Policy Analyst
Friends of the Earth
Washington, DC
02/13/2003
I am not a teacher, but rather a research analyst at Friends of the Earth. I recently presented Saxena and Stotzky's paper at a National Academy of Sciences forum on potential unintended health effects of genetically engineered foods. I have a few comments on points you raised.

First, I find it interesting that hybrids derived from two distinct transformation events (MON810 and Bt11) exhibit the same unintended effect—increased lignin levels. These plants were both transformed by gene gun, maximizing variability in chromosomal insert location. One would think different insertion sites would yield different unintended effects (if the inserted promoter is somehow driving the increase in lignin, that is). I suppose Cry1Ab protein could disrupt cellular metabolism somehow, producing the same effect in MON810 and Bt11. This would require looking closely at the lignin biosynthetic pathway, which involves shikimic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. This seems unlikely, though.

An interesting observation, perhaps unrelated, is that I have seen reports that Roundup Ready soybeans have increased lignin levels in some circumstances, and reduced levels of aromatic amino acids in others. Could a non-specific effect of the engineering process be at play? The problem here is that RR soybeans, I believe, are transformed via Agrobacterium.

I find your mechanical explanation unconvincing. I don't think the paper says anything about corn borer infestation or damage; therefore why would the Bt varieties grow larger, especially when grown indoors where presumably there are no pests?

I would be interested to hear your comments. I spoke with Stotzky, and he didn't have answers to the questions raised above.

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Eric Ribbens
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Macomb, Illinois 61455
03/08/2003
Case Author's Reply:

Thank you for your interesting comments on the Saxena and Stotzky paper. I agree that it is interesting that two of the three hybrid transformations do indeed seem to increase lignin concentration. The evidence for the third transformation is incomplete, and it is interesting that the "Maximizer" hybrid with Bt actually has lignin levels comparable to the non-Bt hybrids. I also think you are right that a strictly mechanical explanation is unlikely, particularly since the growth room levels also were increased. Clearly there is a genetic component to lignin production, which was increased by the Bt transformation. Equally clear is that there is an environmental component, as indicated by the lower lignin levels in the growth room (where plants probably received less mechanical stress / damage).

My main point in writing the Saxena and Stotzky case was not to examine Bt or lignin per se, but rather to examine an interesting recent paper with a flawed experimental design and a weak statistical analysis. The authors probably overstate their results, given the very small sample sizes and limited samples (only from one node, only from one date). Their use of t-tests is probably inappropriate, and in particular enables them to completely overlook potential interactions between site and transformation. They also have no statistical analysis of different transformations overall, which could have been done. Finally, their use of SEM as a measure of variability, particularly given that they did not report sample sizes, is in my opinion a mistake, because SEM is so highly dependent on sample size and carries little or no intrinsic information about variability around a mean.

By the way, my stats class just did this case last week. My students were particularly interested in how this paper really does have some interesting stuff, but the potential punch is reduced by the mistakes. We ended up concluding that part of the blame should be placed on the reviewers' shoulders.

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Colleen Parsons
mdpcms@erols.com
Science/Math
Hagerstown Community College
Hagerstown, Maryland
08/08/2000
I used this case study for an introductory, non-lab biology course called Human Biology. Needless to say, my students are typical "science-phobes" and generally have a minimal background in biology. I used this case after completing the respiratory and circulatory systems. They did not understand all of the terminology that was used; however, they did their best using what they did know to apply their knowledge to a real-life situation. I feel that this helps them to prepare for my tests because I use a great deal of critical thinking type questions. They find these challenging, but it is great exercise and it also makes for a much more alert class!

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Susan Cure
scure@aup.fr
Associate Professor of Biology
American University of Paris
75007 Paris, France
02/15/2010
This is a question, not a comment, and would influence the answer to CQ6; I just want to be sure I get things right. I will be using this case in about 10 days on a class for non-science students. I just wondered if I missed something about the H1N1 so-called swine flu. Is there any evidence at all that it came from pigs? As I understand, it contains RNA segments from avian, porcine and human sources, and I have never seen anything about it being transmitted directly from pigs to humans although apparently a Canadian pig got it from a human. There was a big pig facility in the Mexican town where the first cases were found, but I have seen nothing about those pigs clearly transmitting it to humans. I used to do surveillance of avian flu viruses in Hong Kong before anyone was interested (the 80s)and we thought that the next pandemic would originate where pigs and ducks lived together on farms in SE Asia, but it didn’t happen (at least not yet).

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Carol Bach, M.D.
bachce@d11.org
Science Department
Palmer High School
Colorado Springs, CO
04/22/2008
We used the case as an example of the scientific process with our freshmen Middle Years Programme International Baccalaureate (MYP/IB) biology students. It worked very well and the students enjoyed the step-by-step process. We used sections A, B, C. We also showed a DNA video that had a discussion of sickle cell disease. It was very effective. The case provides an excellent transition from the study of DNA and biotechnology to the study of genetics.

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Mervyn H. Kline
mkline@cleanair.org
Mercury Pollution Specialist
Clean Air Council

12/20/2010
As a former high school environmental science teacher and college professor (biochemist), I found your case history very relevant to the dangers of mercury pollution. There is a very urgent need to get this information into the hands of the next generation of citizens.

You might include the politics and economics of controlling mercury pollution as another component to your case history. It could be used as an extra credit project to further understand how science and politics interact with each other in the real world.

Additional information you might find useful:

  1. The CDC has estimated that as many as 600,000 newborns are at risk from methyl mercury from the fish consumed.
  2. The California gold rush over one hundred years ago used mercury to mine for gold and today mercury is still contaminating rivers and lakes in those mining areas.
  3. The ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that people living in coastal areas have higher levels of mercury in their blood than individuals living elsewhere.
  4. Check out the www.cleanair.org, www.GotMercury.org, www.who.int/ceh, and www.zeromercury.org as well as Dr. Hightower's book "Diagnosis: Mercury, Money, Politics & Poison" (2009).

I hope you will find these comments useful.

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Terence Morris
Terence_Morris@bcit.ca
Basic Health Sciences
BTIC
Ottawa
01/19/2011
Excellent! I will use this in next week's tutorial. An imaginative way to convey an often dry subject. Thanks!

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Diane Herr
dherr@waterfordschools.org
Science
Waterford High School
Waterford, CT
02/12/2011
Nice study. This encompasses many of the concepts in my AP Environmental Science course and I see this opening up discussion on many of the concepts we discussed throughout the year. I am going to use this in my unit on politics and economics. Thank you.

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Beth Strasser
strasser@csus.edu
Anthropology
Cal State Univ Sacramento
Sacramento, CA
02/15/2011
Wonderful case - Use it every term and students love it and, I think, come away with a better understanding of genetics. Thanks!

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Erin Poppert
erin.poppert@ocps.net
Science
Apopka High School
Apopka, FL
02/15/2011
My students LOVE this case study! I like the original animation for how the MDMA works, but this one is put together pretty well. I find that my students may not get all of the vocabulary, but whenever I reference this case study they can figure out what I am talking about and relate back to cell transport and how it works. FYI, I teach this to my regular biology students, so the relevance this has to them is high and makes talking about the cell much more interesting and real to them.

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Cindy Davis
davis_cindy@asdk12.org
Science
Chugiak High
Chugiak, Arkansas
03/01/2011
My Human Anatomy students thought it was "disturbing" for the woman to have her brother as the OB-GYN. I honestly didn't catch that before I handed the case study out.

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Linda Nobles
lnobles@jackson.k12.ms.us
Science
Forest Hill High School
Jackson, MS
03/10/2011
Great case study!

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Kara Marshall

Science Department
Westmoor High School
Daly City, California
03/10/2011
I just wanted to say what a great idea for teaching cellular respiration. Thank you for putting it on the Web.

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Marianne Kot
mariannekot@gmail.com
Science
University of Phoenix
Las Vegas Nevada
03/10/2011
Excellent case.

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Jackie Rogers
jrogers@aberdeen.k12.ms.us
English/Science
Aberdeen High School
Aberdeen MS 39759
03/15/2011
I have searched for case study information of this nature for some time and all I can say is thank you. This will be the type of challenge needed in my class. Great ideas and information.

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Ashland Brown
5browns@charter.net



03/16/2011
I found your lesson last night while researching the TPMT test that is being run on our son. You do a great job! We are waiting for his results. He is 11 and has ALL. I have no scientific background but anything I can learn is appreciated. Thank you for the info!

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Heide Hlawaty
hhlawaty@mcny.edu
CORE and Urban Studies
Metropolitan College of New York
New York, New York
10/21/2006
The case works well with students who have access to the Internet outside of class. I adapted the study by working with the students in the computer lab while reviewing the video clips from PBS. You may want to check out the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. This site allows access to three datasets which can be searched by several variables, specifically with tuberculosis. This will allow students to check out the rates of tuberculosis by borough, SES, gender, etc. The website is: https://a816-health3ssl.nyc.gov/

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Brahmadeo Dewprashad
BDewprashad@bmcc.cuny.edu
Department of Science
Borough of Manhattan Community College / City University of New York
New York, NY
04/25/2011

Author's Response to Jan Machart's Comment of 4/19/2011

The PO2 would be below normal initially as less O2 is carried by the hemoglobin (as indicated in the case). The peripheral chemoreceptors detect variation in O2 concentration in arterial blood. Presumably they send a signal to the brainstem that is translated to increased ventilation rate. This can result in the O2 level increasing to normal or near to normal level. However, the SPO2 level does not increase (as there is not sufficient Hb) until after the patient is treated with methylene blue.

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David Bird
dbird@mtroyal.ca
Biology
Mount Royal University
Calgary Alberta Canada
12/29/2014
A good case. I like the structure. It is ahistorical, (and not a little disrespectful) for the narrator to refer to Dr. Franklin as “Rosy.” This was not a nickname that she accepted—it was thrust on her by Watson in his own published version of the events in The Double Helix.

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Eric Ribbens
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Macomb, IL 61455
02/15/2010
Editor’s Reply

Viruses regularly create new combinations of their DNA, exchanging pieces of DNA with other viruses. The swine flu is actually a strain of influenza with genes from flu that infected pigs, flu that infected birds, and flu that infected people. So the name is not due to the source of infection, but to the fact that this is a new type of flu that we are not able to respond well immunologically to because we have not previously encountered the swine component of this flu’s genetics.

It sounds like the questioner already understands this, and is wondering how this flu moved into people. And that piece we don’t know. We do know that there is the pig flu, which doesn’t (normally) infect humans, and the human flu (which we have been able to resist enough that it can't develop an epidemic outbreak). Presumably an animal (either pig or human) was infected by both versions of the influenza, and while infected the two strains swapped DNA. So the virus we call H1N1 has the genes to invade human cells and manage human-to-human transmission, and also has genes from the pig variety that we don't have defenses against. Researchers have been hunting through Veracruz trying to find this answer. See http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/05/06/swine.flu.origins/index.html.

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William D. Rogers
wrogers@bsu.edu
Biology Department
Ball State University
Muncie, IN 47306
02/15/2010
Author’s Reply

Eric’s comments are on-target. Conclusively documenting viral transmission on a specific case basis can be exceedingly difficult. The links below provide the experts’ views on the subject.

Here are my references for question CQ6 (and related slides):

  • http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1flu/qa.htm
  • http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7250/full/nature08182.html
  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090613063849.htm (This third link is essentially a summary of the article in Nature — the second link)
  • http://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/key_facts.htm

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Victoria Finnerty, Ph.D.
victoria.finnerty@emory.edu
Department of Biology
Emory University
Atlanta, GA 30322
08/21/2008
1. Regarding the use of CA-125, it should be strongly emphasized that this “marker” measures inflammation, not cancer per se. There is no specific blood test for ovarian cancer like the PSA test for prostate cancer. This is important because students need to understand that many lives could be saved (perhaps 15,000/year) if there were a way to screen women for ovarian cancer. This would mean diagnosis at stages I or II when the cure rates are much higher than for stages III or IV when cure rates are dismal. Students could be asked to look up survival for these stages.

Students should be asked to explain why we don’t have a specific test. Are there biological reasons? There are also political/economic questions that students should consider since they may well affect their lives. What issues are involved with insurance companies having to pay for screening mammograms? What is the reason for the new idea that the PSA need not be done on men over the age of 70? Why is the CA-125 not used for screening, even if there are some false positives?

2. Why do we use the term "remission"? Who invented that word? Was it oncologists? Certainly they use it and so does every one else! What does it mean? To me it means that there’s no sign of that cancer, BUT we’re waiting for it to return, for the other shoe to drop, so to speak. If a person has a heart attack or a stroke, and they’ve recovered, there’s a reasonable probability of a repeat. Have students look these numbers up. BUT we don’t say that these patients are "in remission."

How does the term "remission" affect the patient? Does it instill a bit of unnecessary fear? (The doctor must think it’s coming back!) Does this term remove hope that the patient might be cured?

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Kenneth R. Bridges, M.D.
kbridges@rics.bwh.harvard.edu
Joint Center for Sickle Cell and Thalassemic Disorders / Department of Hematology
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Boston, MA 02115
01/22/2001
Your cases are excellent in their depth and teaching quality. I had the good fortune to meet both Drs. Pauling and Castle. They did indeed have the famous conversation while traveling by train from a meeting. The other interesting historical item I recently learned came from Vernon Ingram. He did not come to the MRC with the intent of working on sickle hemoglobin. Another researcher had failed in some crystallography work on sickle hemoglobin because of the low resolution at the time. Ingram helped Max Perutz with putting mercury residues on hemoglobin A to improve the crystallographic resolution. Francis Crick then suggested that he look into the question of the difference between normal and sickle hemoglobin, since there was a left-over sample from the failed experiment. Science proceeds in the strangest ways!

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Caryn Self-Sullivan, PhD
cselfsullivan@georgiasouthern.edu
Department of Biology
Georgia Southern University
Statesboro, Georgia 30458
10/29/2009
This is awesome and timely! I’m doing human evolution in my general biology class this week and I’ve been looking for just such a case. I have one concern that I would like to past back to the authors.

I know that there are disagreements among paleoanthropologists, but I’m finding that most of my sources include Pan (chimps) in the Hominini Tribe. This case appears to exclude chimps from the Hominini (commonly refered to as Hominins).

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Primates
  • Superfamily: Hominoidea
  • Family: Hominidae
  • Subfamily: Homininae
  • Tribe: Hominini
  • Subtribe Panina: Genus Pan (chimp-like) Subtribe Hominina: Genus Homo (human-like) + Extinct Genera:

    • Paranthropus
    • Australopithecus
    • Sahelanthropus
    • Orrorin
    • Ardipithecus
    • Kenyanthropus

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Erin Barley and Joan Sharp
ebarley@sfu.ca jsharp@sfu.ca
Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, British Columbia Canada
11/05/2009
Authors’ Reply

Thanks for your comments on our case.

There is still a dispute among paleoanthropologists about the use of the term hominin. The term is used for the taxonomic level of tribe and the dispute addresses how closely related chimps and humans are. The most common usage is that used in our case, based on the assumption that chimp and human lineages are different tribes and using hominin for the human lineage. There are two competing usages. The one you use assumes that chimp and human lineages belong to one tribe, the hominin. Finally, a third group of paleoanthropologists argues strongly that chimps and humans belong to the same genus and refers to chimps as Homo troglodytes. We have added a note about this controversy to the case teaching notes.

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Alexis Grosofsky
grosofsk@beloit.edu
Associate Professor
Department of Psychology
Beloit College
Beloit, WI
01/24/2005
The case was very well-received. Students appreciated being able to learn more about what is and isn’t science by working with a concrete example. I modified the flow chart that helps students distinguish science vs. pseudoscience, junk science and antiscience (e.g., it seemed that “anecdote” should not be listed as part of the methods of science).

Editor’s Note: You can access the modified version in either PDF or editable XLS format.

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Jonathan Visick
jevisick@noctrl.edu
Department of Biology
North Central College
Naperville, Illinois 60540
11/04/2008
Comment and Author's Response

In principle, this case looks like a good way to talk about cell structure in an introductory course. However, I was VERY disappointed by this case, for several reasons:

(1) In this case, the researchers examine a blood sample microscopically and identify Gram-negative bacteria by their size, presence of DNA and outer membranes! It’s not made clear until later that they used an electron microscope, which is likely to lead to the misconception that a light microscope could be used to perform this analysis. More importantly, it leads to the misconception that electron microscopy would be used to identify an infectious agent. Instead, why not teach methods of identifying prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens that might actually be used, such as Gram staining to identify a Gram-negative pathogen?

Author’s Reply: The gram staining method is briefly mentioned in the case as well as in the case teaching notes. In the interest of keeping the slides to a minimum of text and the length to 75 minutes, details about the gram stain as well as microscopy were not written out in detail, but faculty can easily elaborate at length if they so desire.

(2) Why would the researchers look at a blood sample? If this individual has bacteria in her blood, she’s septicemic and will be dead long before the electron microscopy is done. The idea that blood remains sterile except in an extremely serious and widespread infection is valuable for students to learn—instead, this case will again create mis-perceptions. Why not talk about taking appropriate samples for the symptoms and organism under consideration?

Author’s Reply: This case is not designed to cover details of microbiology sampling and is designed for introductory biology courses which never have details on sampling techniques in the textbook. This would make an excellent extension of the case in a microbiology course, though.

(3) The DNA analysis component is clearly intended to teach the importance of molecular genetics in identifying species today, but it’s unrealistic in terms of how molecular analysis might be used. PCR would be much more realistic here! Antibody-based tests could also be mentioned.

Author’s Reply:< Again, students at this stage of an introductory biology case have not learned about PCR or antibody tests, so it would be unnecessarily confusing to mention them here.

(4) The case has one of the students’ mothers sending all manner of antibiotics, antivirals and other chemotherapeutics, which the students administer rather indiscriminately based on the results of their analysis, and also take prophylactically. Obviously, this aspect of the case is meant to be somewhat facetious, but rather than seizing an opportunity to educate about proper use of antibiotics, it does the opposite.

Author’s Reply: Absolutely, and the case specifically highlights how useless it was to use antibiotics without knowing what the disease organism is. The more serious issues of antibiotic resistance would make an excellent follow-up discussion in later lectures in the course.

Rather than showing how biological knowledge might be used in an actual case, this study exaggerates the case so much that is seems entirely artificial. Further, it may create more misconceptions than it cures. This case does not seem to be of the quality typical of NCCSTS. I suggest it be greatly revised or removed from the site.

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Robert Skinner, PhD
SkinnerRobertD@uams.edu
Professor of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Little Rock, AR 72205
01/30/2010
Comment

I anxiously opened this case expecting to find how the amount of caffeine and other ingredients affect one’s health. But, I only found a discussion on sugar. I looked up the Wikipedia article on one of the drinks, Red Bull, and found that the high content of caffeine in it acts on the inner surface of blood vessels, the endothelial lining, and also interferes with normal blood coagulation. Small amounts of cocaine have been found in it. These seem more significant than calories. The caffeine makes you feel energized and more awake and the cocaine, if enough to have an effect, may reduce normal pain sensations. So, how about revising this case to show the potential detrimental effects of the ingredients other than sugars. I noticed in the Wikipedia article the recomendations for athletes to keep hydration and such power drinks are not recommended.

Authors’ Reply

The purpose of the case is really to get students to realize the difference between what serves as energy-producing compounds and what are stimulants. The role of trace amounts of cocaine is not within the scope of this case study.

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Deborah Evans
devans@olivetcollege.edu
Natural and Physical Sciences
Olivet College
Olivet, Michigan
10/28/2010

The NASA link was blocked. I had students review the links in advance as research without really knowing what the content of the case was going to be.

We also spent quite a bit of time talking about crashed and elevated glucose levels and how that presents, since some of the symptoms mirrored those of either high or low glucose levels, including diabetic shock.

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY
10/29/2010
We recommend in place of the resource no longer available from NASA the following from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): "Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety" at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heat_guide.asp

Instructors are encouraged to review all of the website resources listed in a case before they teach the case and to update them, as needed, for their students.

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Elizabeth Davidson
esdavidson@ualr.edu
Nursing
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Little Rock, AR
03/26/2011
I think this is a wonderful case study to utilize with my associate degree nursing students in a mental health nursing course.

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Beth Adler
badler@ortn.edu
Science
Oak Ridge High Shcool
Oak Ridge, TN
03/28/2011
Wonderful case study. I incorporate an intro to the nitrogen cycle and a review of cellular respiration/metabolic poisons and genetics. The white clover project lab activity from Washington University goes well with the activity as well: http://biology4.wustl.edu/cloverproject/

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Ann Taylor
taylora@wabash.edu
Chemistry
Wabash College
Crawfordsville, IN
03/28/2011
Slide 18 shows the hydrolysis reaction of ATP, stating it provides energy to do work...but the number given has a positive value, suggesting the reaction is either endothermic or endogonic (it's not indicated if the value represents delta H or delta G).

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Derek Kendig
dmkendig@loyola.edu
Biology
Loyola University Maryland
Baltimore, MD
09/17/2015
I have recently used this case study to help discuss thermoregulation in a 200 level Human A&P course. The students enjoyed it and were intrigued by the questions. One interesting point brought up in our discussion was the use of IV rehydration for the patient as opposed to the suggested oral rehydration. Based on the case study it seems the paramedic would be capable of providing such a treatment. I think it can add to the discussion and purpose of the case as to what symptoms might necessitate IV rehydration vs. oral rehydration. Thanks for a good tool to use in class.

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Mariane Ferencevic
mferencevic@brocku.ca
Geography
Brock University
St Catharines, ON, Canada
04/08/2011
Funny this should appear as a case study. I had debated using the same story for a case development...with a different twist.

What prompted my interest in it was an interview with Dr. Andrew Wakefield on CBC Radio (http://www.cbc.ca/video/news/audioplayer.html?clipid=1769231338 from 1:37 to 14:05) and further reading of the original Lancet article.

My plan was to use this case as a modern-day example of the resistance to change that happens in the world of science. We had discussed in class the topic of paradigm shifts and the type of attacks that scientists in history have been subject to because they presented a view of the world that was different from what was commonly accepted. I do not claim to be an expert on the topic of Dr. Andrew Wakefield or on the autism/MMR link, but as a scientist I often feel that the medical community is far less than objective and hides behind the mask of science to further their interests. After hearing this interview (above link) and reading the original article, I cannot help but feel this story is another example of just that. In short, that Dr. Wakefield was attacked and his image tainted to ensure immunization rates would remain high, and without addressing the potential that there may be something to his findings, and as he suggests, the topic "requires further study".

Perhaps the CBC interview can be added to the list of resources and/or integrated as another exercise in the case?

Thanks for sharing your hard work with us, it is much appreciated.

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Amy Muzzarelli
amuzzarelli@elkrapids.k12.mi.us
Science
Elk Rapids High School
Elk Rapids, MI
04/14/2011
I can see my student's eyes glaze over when we start talking about cell signaling. The chorus of "ugh" fills my room. However, my kids LOVE this case study because of the humor in the problem. They are interested in understanding exactly how "male enhancement drugs" work, but are afraid to ask. This is a way for my students to giggle about cell signaling rather than groan about it.

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Jan Machart
janmachart@mail.utexas.edu
Biological Sciences
University of Texas
Austin, TX
04/19/2011
Hi, I am reading the answer key to the Respiratory Distress case study, and have a question about the answer to 8d--how would the body likely compensate for decreased Hb? By the answer, do you intend to imply that decreased HbO2 (in the presence of normal plasma PO2) triggers chemoreceptor-mediated ventilation?

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Colleen Fried
friedca@hiram.edu
Chemistry
Hiram College
Hiram, OH
04/22/2011
I truly enjoyed this case, and found it highly successful in my course. I want to call one problem to your attention, and that has to do with your answer key. In your answer to #5 of the case ([H3O+] deficit), you can not use the change in pH to directly calculate the change in [H3O+] – the true concentration of H3O+ is about 4x10^-8 at a normal pH, and the deficits calculated should be in the 1x10^-8 range, and not .71. This also throws off your calculation in the next problem.

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Patrick Alarcon
alarconp@smsridgefield.org
Middle School Science
St. Mary School
Ridgefield, Ct 06877
05/03/2011
I retired from public high school and I'm teaching in a diocesan middle school. I have used the case studies extensively in high school but I've modified some of them for middle school. As always, I and my students appreciate what your program at Buffalo has done for our understanding of difficult concepts. Science is fun and this could not be more true than when my environmental science class put on a school-wide performance about the content in The Fish Kill Mystery. I have video about segments if you'd like to enjoy them with us. Thank you for allowing me to make the content "real" for my students.

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Katayoun Chamany
chamanyk@newschool.edu
Science, Technology and Society Program
Euegen Lang College, New School University
New York, NY
05/07/2002
I recently did a mini case on cloning and so was very excited to read this case. The references for the instructor were wonderful and very well organized. I have some additional references to suggest.

Recently, Cibelli of Advanced Cell technology published a paper on making clones through parthogenesis. This is a major issue for those opposed to "full human clones." Since a clone made by this method would never live past the blastocyst stage and therefore would die of its own accord, there would never be a fully human adult clone by this method. For a brief overview, see the paper published online by Scientific American (Feb. 1, 2002): Scientists coax stem cells from unfertilized primate embryos" http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=scientists-coax-stem-cell.

More detailed information can be found in the following paper: Cibelli, J.B., A.A Kiessling, C. Kerrianne, C. Richards, R.P. Lanza, and M.D. West. 2001. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in humans: Pronuclear and early embryonic development. e-biomed: The Journal of Regenerative Medicine 2: 25-31. http://www.bedfordresearch.org/articles/cibelli_jregenmed.pdf

There are currently two bills out there that deal with stem cells and cloning and they are interesting, especially given the social slant of this case. Providing links to these bills would allow students to see the Senate is divided in this regard. There is a nice front page story in the February 2002 issue of Science and Technology in Congress (a publication of the Center for Science, Technology and Congress at American Association for the Advancement of Science) titled "Senate Braces for Cloning Debate." The Center also maintains an excellent resource page on cloning at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/issues/cloning.htm.

Finally, the NCHLA (National Committee for a Human Life Amendment) maintains links to legislative reports and Senate briefings and statements via its "Campaign to Ban Human Cloning" site at http://www.nchla.org/docdisplay.asp?ID=115 - click on the "Related Information" button.

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Jose A Hernandez, MD
elcubano@aol.com
Pathology
Mercy Hospital
Miami, FL
06/06/2011
I enjoyed the case presentation on ovarian cancer from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science. However, I would like to make a correction to a comment that was submitted by a reader on 08/21/2008 in response to this case.

The commenter wrote: “Regarding the use of CA-125, it should be strongly emphasized that this ‘marker’ measures inflammation, not cancer per se. There is no specific blood test for ovarian cancer like the PSA test for prostate cancer.”

I disagree. Inflammation can also elevate PSA levels in serum, such as prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate). (Ref - NCI website - http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/PSA).

I think these cases are very instructive and well-done. My correction is only meant to preserve the great value they already contain.

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Gary Buckley
gbuckley@cameron.edu
Physical Sciences
Cameron University
Lawton, OK
06/15/2011
Good case study. A minor thing I noticed was the titles on the graphs were backwards - they should always be in a y vs. x format.

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Eric Ribbens
E-Ribbens@wiu.edu
Biology
Western Illinois University
Macomb, IL
06/22/2011
AUTHOR UPDATE: I just got off the phone with the Wesselman Woods Nature Preserve naturalist. He tells me that they harvested no deer in 2008, six deer in 2009, and again only six deer in 2010 (due to problems filing the necessary permits). The deer have apparently learned to avoid the corn bait piles during the daytime, and they don't do the herd reduction at night. The current estimate is 28 deer, and the heavy browse line I remember seeing is reportedly gone.

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Kim Risley
risleykm@mountunion.edu
Biology
University of Mount Union
Alliance, OH
07/19/2011
Being intrigued by the title of this newly-released case study, I read through it and was surprised to find several typos within the case as well as in the references. The accurate name for this gene is NDM-1 standing for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 gene. This gene gives the microorganism antibiotic resistance to many currently-used antibiotics. The case study lists both NDM-1 (correct)and NMD-1 (incorrect) in a chart, text, and references. Students may have issues finding correct resources if they search for NMD because this name is associated with nonsense mRNA decay, human melanoma and neuromuscular disease to name a few. Please be sure to update the gene name to NDM-1. The following may serve as an overview for resistance and NDM-1 from the New England Journal of Medicine (Perspective) http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1011715

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY
07/21/2011
Our thanks to Kim Risley for pointing out this error. We have corrected it in all of the files, including the answer key, for the case.

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Liam
liam@globaljaya.com
Science
Global Jaya International School
Tangerang 15224 Indonesia
08/29/2011
Thanks, I've just been teaching the menstrual cycle to my International Baccalaureate Biology students, this matches perfectly.

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Liam
Liam@globaljaya.com
Science
Global Jaya International School
Tangerang 15224 Indonesia
08/29/2011
Thanks for this, we also have a lot of dengue in Jakarta so it is rather relevant. I wonder if we could add some detail for a collaboration?

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Liam
liam@globaljaya.com
Science
Global Jaya International School
Tangerang 15224 Indonesia
09/04/2011
Great stuff, thanks. I'll be able to use this with my International Baccalaureate students when they study their neurobiology option.

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Amanda Ryan
Amanda.Ryan@cobbk12.org
Science
Walton High School
Marietta GA
09/05/2011
This case study was perfect for my lesson on homeostasis. While my junior/senior introduction to anatomy and physiology students needed a little guidance with the calculations, they were able to relate a concept of homeostasis to a the body's response to a natural disaster.

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Brooke Davis
bhdavis@asheboro.k12.nc.us
Science
Asheboro High School
Asheboro, NC
09/06/2011
This is a great activity for students in AP Biology. It is a great introduction to A&P. My only complaint is the first link (www.peakrun.com/articles/66_1.html). With AP Biology students it wasn't a big deal...they were able to figure it out on their own. But it would be easier and take less time if the links were updated and active.

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Vicki Kyarsgaard
kyarsgaardv@crown.edu
Nursing
Crown College
St. Bonifacius, MN
09/06/2011
I was able to find the Peltola article, but the other article was only available through the Journal or $86.00! Resource sources are critical for these cases.....

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY
09/07/2011
We know it can be very frustrating when the articles a case is based on are not openly accessible. Publishers own copyright and set subscription or pay-per-view fees to recover their investments. Although library support for teaching and research can vary widely from school to school, we always encourage people to investigate their academic or public library's Interlibrary Loan service to see if they can get a copy of an article for you. At our institution, this is free to faculty, students, and staff. Other places pass on a nominal fee to the person placing the request, although sometimes they must recover the entire costs.

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Christine Lesh
cllesh@carrollk12.org
Science
Winters Mill High School
Westminster, MD
09/07/2011
I would love to use this case with my honors anatomy students, however, we cannot afford the skulls other than the few modern human ones. Do you have a website or document that would match as closely as possible the luxury of having all those skulls. I was hoping if I had multiple views of the skulls, I might be able to replicate the activity with our modern human skulls and the pictures of the other skulls. Thanks!

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY
09/09/2011

This is an excellent question. We are hoping that other instructors who have used this case and have suggestions will comment here.

In the meantime, we have compiled a list below of websites with 3D fossils and artifacts related to human evolution that may be useful, but bringing them into the classroom and relating them to this specific case may require creative solutions:

  • The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History's Human Evolution Evidence Collection
    http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection
  • 3D Hominid Skulls Interactive, Natural History Museum, London
    http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/human-origins/hominid-skulls/
  • Human Evolution: The Fossil Evidence in 3D
    http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/projects/human/

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Angela Dixon
adixon@stlukesmobile.com
Science
St. Luke's Episcopal School
Mobile, AL
09/09/2011
We have the same problem. I have one plastic model in my classroom. I did find a nearby university with a medical department that allows other institutions to check out human skeletons. I used one of these when we were studying skulls and differences between males and females. I used the skeleton for a month, but I am sure that if you need more than one skull you would have to turn it in earlier. Hope that helps.

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Kathleen Baka
kbaka@kent.edu
education
Kent State University-Geauga Campus
Burton, Ohio
09/09/2011
There is an excellent web site out of Indiana University that has lessons with pictures of skulls. The one titled "Hominid Skulls Lab" provides drawings, photos, and a place to order skulls. I am sending the URL for web site rather than the lesson because it is much more comprehensive: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/evol.fs.html Also, if you have a natural history museum nearby, they may skulls you can borrow. Ours does.

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Justine Mcloughlin
jmcloughlin@sandwich.k12.ma.us
Science Department
Sandwich High School
Sandwich, Massachusetts
09/09/2011
Although I know it isn't as interesting as working with real skulls, I used an activity developed by Nova with my AP students last year that I think accomplished many of the same goals as the case study described here. It involved the analysis of data regarding a number of different fossils and allowed the students to experience some of the same frustrations that scientists face in trying to work with partial skeletons. It would definitely be an appropriate level for honors anatomy. The activity is called "Bones of Contention." http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachers/evolution/bones-contention.html

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Jennifer Leavey
jennifer.leavey@biology.gatech.edu
School of Biology
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA
09/14/2011
I really like this case study, but keep in mind that influenza is an RNA virus. The gene sequence is given as DNA, which might confuse people (like it did me). Genbank flu sequence is given as cDNA, which might be what they used here.

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Diane Herr
dherr@waterfordschools.org
Science Department
Waterford High School
Waterford, CT 06385
09/08/2009

I used this case in an upper level environmental science class to review the scientific process. The students came up with some great pieces of evidence for Part I and named physical evidence that they could repeatedly test for authentication. For Part II they made great observations, but then for Part III they seemed to totally forget the evidence that they came up with for Part I and were swayed by the video as sufficient evidence. The students also had problems applying their discussion for this case to other types of environmental problems/policy (Part III, Question 5).

I think it would be helpful to have students also examine another environmental issue like global warming, and go through what evidence they would need, what evidence we have, and how to interpret the data.

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Matthew P. Rowe
rowe@shsu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences
Sam Houston State University
Huntsville, Texas 77341
06/27/2011
Tragic Choices: Autism, Measles, and the MMR Vaccine
Author’s response to case comment

I appreciate the time and thoughtfulness Mariane Ferencevic put into her comment regarding "Tragic Choices: Autism, Measles, and the MMR Vaccine," in no small part because her suggestion permits us to continue discussing the question, "How can we do a better job of helping our students distinguish good science from bad science from pseudoscience?" This question lies at the heart of the case itself and, I would argue, provides an operational definition of what constitutes scientific literacy.

Mariane suggests there is a second side to the Andrew Wakefield saga, namely that Dr. Wakefield's hypothesis (that the MMR vaccine causes bowel inflammation. which leads to autism) is actually correct. Moreover, Big Pharma and an entrenched medical establishment have conspired to suppress Dr. Wakefield's research results, smear his reputation, and avoid conducting the studies necessary to address whether "there may be something to his findings" (Ferencevic 2011).

In support of this alternative perspective, Marianne provides a link (http://www.cbc.ca/video/news/audioplayer.html?clipid=1769231338, from 1:37 to 16:10, not 14:05 as listed in Marianne's original comment) to an interview with Dr. Andrew Wakefield conducted by Anna Maria Tremonti on the CBC radio program The Current, which aired on 27 January 2011. Ms. Tremonti's interview with Dr. Wakefield was itself a response, requested by listeners, to her interview with Seth Mnookin, which aired on 11 January 2011 (see http://www.cbc.ca/video/news/audioplayer.html?clipid=1736455338, from 0:33 to 21:43). Mr. Mnookin’s new book (2011), The Panic Virus*, is highly critical of Dr. Wakefield and the vaccine fears he fomented, to which Dr. Wakefield directly responds in his interview with Ms. Tremonti.

As Marianne suggests, good scientists can be persecuted, even prosecuted — remember Galileo. The question we must be able to help our students (and the lay public, if we care about scientific literacy) answer is whether Andrew Wakefield is a modern-day Robin Warren or Barry Marshall, medical researchers whose hypothesis that a bacterium caused ulcers was initially ridiculed by the medical establishment (Atwood 2004) but who eventually were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine (2005) for their pioneering, anti-dogmatic work. Or might Wakefield be a more recent version of Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, two physicists who prematurely (and in the press rather than in substantive peer-reviewed publications) announced they had discovered evidence of cold fusion, results that subsequently failed to be replicated in numerous labs at a diversity of institutions (Cold Fusion 2011), rendering cold fusion a laughable example of "pathological science" (Pathological Science 2011)? Or might Dr. Wakefield actually be as deceitful and dishonest as Hwang Woo-suk, the molecular biologist whose research results on human embryonic stem cells were, by his own admission, faked (Hwang Woo-suk 2011)? Where on the continuum from liar to inept scientist to victimized genius can we place Dr. Wakefield? And why? And can we teach our students how to make these critically important judgments?

We can start by helping our students understand how bad science and pseudoscience are typically marketed to (see, for example, Pratkanis 1995; Coker 2001; Barrett & Jarvis 2005) and maintained in the popular culture (Goertzel 2011). Dr. Wakefield employs many of the tactics associated with charlatans and quacks attempting to peddle their pseudoscientific beliefs as, for example: claiming that his research findings are being suppressed by the established medical community (there is no evidence this is true); using ad hominem attacks against his critics (as, for example, his rejoinder in the interview with Anna Tremonti that Seth Mnookin isn't a scientist); taking his story to the media rather than publishing scholarly articles in peer-reviewed journals; and by relying on anecdotes rather than the results of controlled, repeatable, scientific analyses (exemplified by Wakefield's statement during the interview that "parents trust their instincts, they know this problem [of vaccines causing autism] is real"). It cannot help Andrew Wakefield's trustworthiness that he is so easily caught in his own falsehoods as, for example, when Ms. Tremonti explicitly asks whether or not he was in the process of developing an alternative measles vaccine at the time he was challenging the MMR vaccine's safety; Wakefield responded flatly, "No, absolutely not." An electronic copy of the patent application filed by Wakefield can be found at http://briandeer.com/mmr/1998-vaccine-patent.pdf. Identifying "how" to investigate the credibility of sources is certainly a skill we must help our students develop.

Most importantly, purveyors of pseudoscientific beliefs typically ignore conflicting evidence (Coker 2011; Goertzel 2011). The anti-vaccine movement certainly does. When asked by Ms. Tremonti what he plans to do next, Andrew Wakefield concludes with the statement that "I will continue to try....to answer the question do vaccines cause autism. So far, it [the necessary research] has not been done." As the numerous citations I included in the original case study should demonstrate, Wakefield's press conference in 1998 generated a tremendous interest among medical researchers, resulting in literally dozens of studies, none of which has found an association between vaccines (MMR or otherwise) and autism. Paul Offit (2011, pgs. 92-93, and see sources cited therein) sums up the consensus among scientists: "The worldwide panic following Wakefield's paper caused researchers to take a closer look. Investigators found that children with autism were not more likely to have measles vaccine virus in their intestines; and they were not more likely to have intestinal inflammation. Further, no one identified brain-damaging proteins in the bloodstream of children who had received MMR. Finally, twelve separate groups of researchers working in several different countries examined hundreds of thousands of children who had or hadn’t received MMR. The risk of autism was the same in both groups. For scientists, these studies ended the concern that MMR caused autism." Even if Andrew Wakefield was not guilty of egregious misconduct, as Seth Mnookin brings out in his BBC radio interview, Wakefield's suggestion that the MMR vaccine might cause autism was based on a sample of 12 and only 12 children. I am not trying to be insulting when I suggest that Mariane Ferencevic appears not to have digested the main point of my case when she states that "I cannot help but feel" (italics mine) that Andrew Wakefield is correct. Might vaccines cause autism in some tiny subset of children with as yet unidentified medical conditions? Possibly. Could failure to receive one or more vaccines also lead to autism in a different subset of children with a different set of medical pre-conditions? Perhaps. Have researchers looked for such connections? Absolutely. Does the current evidence hint at such linkages? No. Should the public continue to fund investigations studying the purported but scientifically unsupported link between vaccines and autism? Or should we instead fund studies more likely to lead to breakthroughs in understanding the causes of and treatments for autism (e.g., Baylor College of Medicine 2011)? How many more studies and how many tens of thousands more children are needed before rational individuals conclude that our funds can be better spent elsewhere? "Feelings" are insufficient for deciding what projects to fund, whether or not a given study is adequate, or even whether a given scientist is guilty of fraud. What matters is the preponderance and sufficiency of evidence. Currently, there is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism, and overwhelming evidence that they don't. I apologize for failing to make this point clearly in my case study.

The "Tragic Choices" case was developed specifically for a new course we teach targeted at helping the science-phobic undergraduate student overcome their fear of critical thinking, in general, and of science, in particular. A question we frequently pose to the students is whether there is any harm in believing something that is not true. Choosing not to vaccinate one's child under the mistaken belief that vaccines cause autism can prove deadly (for a sobering estimate of the number of children harmed, see http://www.jennymccarthybodycount.com/Jenny_McCarthy_Body_Count/Home.html). My responsibility, as a science educator, is to help my students distinguish good science from bad science from snake oil. Believing in things that "just ain’t so" can lead to very tragic consequences. Helping our students sharpen their critical thinking skills is not only something we can do, it is something we must do.

*Paul Offit's new book Deadly Choices (2011) was published coincident with Mnookin's (2011). Both books cover similar ground, providing excellent summaries of, among other topics, the history of the anti-vaccine movement and the recent federal court rulings that vaccines do not cause autism. I highly recommend both books for readers interested in the ongoing vaccine wars.

References

  • Atwood, K. C. 2004. Bacteria, ulcers, and ostracism? H. pylori and the making of a myth. Skeptical Inquirer 28(6). Available online at: http://www.csicop.org/si/show/bacteria_ulcers_and_ostracism_h._pylori_and_the_making_of_a_myth/.
  • Barrett, S., and W. T. Jarvis. 2005 (20 January). How quackery sells. Quackwatch. Retrieved (23 June 2011) from http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/quacksell.html
  • Baylor College of Medicine. 2011 (9 June). Genes provide landmarks on the roadmap of autism. ScienceDaily. Retrieved (24 June 2011) from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110608141522.htm
  • Coker, R. 2001 (30 May). Distinguishing science and pseudoscience. Quackwatch. Retrieved (23 June 2011) from: http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html
  • "Cold Fusion." 2011 (22 June). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved (24 June 2011) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion.
  • Ferencevic, M. 2011 (28 April). Comments/Replies. Retrieved (24 June 2011) from: http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/detail.asp?case_id=576&id=576
  • Goertzel, T. 2011. The conspiracy meme: why conspiracy theories appeal and persist. Skeptical Inquirer 35: 28-37. Available online at http://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_conspiracy_meme/.
  • "Hwang Woo-suk." 2011 (19 May). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved (24 June 2011) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hwang_Woo-suk
  • Mnookin, S. 2011. The Panic Virus: A True Story of Medicine, Science, and Fear. Simon & Schuster, New York.
  • Offit, P. A. 2011. Deadly Choices: How the Anti-vaccine Movement Threatens Us All. Basic Books, New York.
  • "Pathological Science." 2011 (12 June). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved (24 June 2011) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathological_science
  • Pratkanis, A.R. 1995. How to sell a pseudoscience. Skeptical Inquirer 19: 19-25. Available online at http://www.positiveatheism.org/writ/pratkanis.htm.

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Bethany Dixon
bdixon@rocklinacademy.org
Biology
Western Sierra Collegiate Academy
Rocklin, CA
09/09/2011

We used this case with great success in my Sophomore Biology and Junior Honors Biology classes; the discussions were fantastic. I paired it with the "checks" activity from Indiana University's website for our third day of class discussion. Together, they provided an interesting view of how science works. Here's the link to the activity: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/natsc.fs.html

Thanks for the great work!

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260
09/25/2011
Response to Comment

We consulted with the author of the case study and have made changes to the case. Slide 25 in the PowerPoint presentation has been changed to include a footnote and the description in the teaching notes for this slide has also been changed to include the following two sentences:

    You may want to point out that influenza virus uses RNA for its genome. However, researchers often work with DNA copies (cDNA) of the virus’s genes and generally store information for genes as DNA sequences.

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Rachelle Spell
rspell@emory.edu
Biology
Emory
Atlanta, GA
09/26/2011
This case is excellent practice for applying knowledge of the genetic code, but I think I will use it next time as a recap rather than a way to introduce the content. Also, I will include slides on flu next time instead of just giving them in the handout. There is a small error in the slide of the tRNA with the amino acid on the wrong end of the tRNA.

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Gary Christopher
christopherg@wmpenn.edu
Physical Education
William Penn University
Oskaloosa, IA
12/28/2011
This is FANTASTIC. I'm going to have some fun with my A&P classes this coming semester. Thank you.

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Elisa Whitman
ewhitman@stoningtonschools.org
Science
Stonington High School
Pawcatuck, CT
12/29/2011
What great timing!! I teach high school 9th grade Biology Honors and we're just finishing up the cell membrane when we return after break on January 3rd. My students will love this. Thanks and Happy New Year!!

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260
10/04/2011
Response to Comment

Thanks, Rachelle! We have corrected this slide and reloaded the PPT on our site.

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Robert Wahler, PharmD
rgwahler@buffalo.edu
Department of Pharmacy Practice
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260
10/25/2011
I have developed a related activity for one of my classes that others may be interested in:

PHC 250 Apothecarial Adventures 2009
Medical Marijauna - A Mythbusters Approach

Based upon the popular Discovery channel show Mythbusters, the class will examine a number of "myths" surrounding the use of marijuana as a medicine. Mythbusters takes myths from various sources, subjects them to the scientific method and, based upon their results, determines if the myth is "Busted," "Plausible" or "Confirmed."

Since the class does not have the time to conduct hands-on research with marijuana (nor the legal authority to do so), we are going to use scientific data to test our myths.

In teams of 2, the class will research literature on a selected myth. The teams will present their data in a brief presentation (approx. 5 minutes) during class time. Teams should include at least 3 references. References should be identified and evaluated for bias. Teams should approach each myth in an unbiased manner.

The remaining members of the class and the faculty facilitator will ask questions of each group to help clarify the data presented. The class will then vote on each myth whether it's busted, plausible or confirmed.

Understand that medical marijuana is typically intended for certain patients that fall into the following groups:

  • Terminally ill
  • Life-threatening
  • Debilitating chronic illness
  • Otherwise healthy, but refractory to standard therapy

In preparation of your data presentation, be cognizant of the fact that to be considered as a useful medication, the following areas should be addressed; we will also use these criteria when voting in class:

  • Appropriate/Indicated
  • Effective
  • Safe
  • Convenient to administer

Finally, the myths:

  1. Marijuana is useful in appetite stimulation.
  2. Marijuana is useful in nausea and vomiting following anti-cancer therapy.
  3. Marijuana is useful in neurological and movement disorders (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis).
  4. Marijuana is a useful analgesic (chronic pain from osteoarthritis, migraine, cancer pain).
  5. Marijuana is useful in glaucoma.
  6. Marijuana is useful in pruritis.
  7. Marijuana is useful in premenstrual syndrome, menstrual cramps.
  8. Marijuana is useful in depression.
  9. Marijuana is addictive.
  10. Marijuana smoking is just as harmful as tobacco smoking.
  11. Marijuana causes brain damage.
  12. Marijuana causes fatal overdoses.
  13. Marijuana causes reduced immune response.
  14. Marijuana side effects are "pleasurable," tolerated well.
  15. Marijuana causes infertility in males.
  16. Marijuana causes long term memory impairment.

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Kim Pause Tucker
ktucker@ccga.edu
Biology
College of Coastal Georgia
Brunswick, GA
10/25/2011
My Bio I students really enjoyed working through this lab activity. We ended by watching a YouTube video about the Tylenol murders, which they were all really interested in. I think that this really helped them to understand respiration and the electron transport chain better. Thanks! :)

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Darlene M.
dmitrano@gsu.edu
Neuroscience
Georgia State
Atlanta, GA
11/17/2011
Thanks so much for the case. I've presented this scenario in an ethics arena, but this is perfect for an Intro to Neuroscience class addressing Sexuality & the Brain.

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Linda Green
linda.green@biology.gatech.edu
Biology
Georgia Tech
Atlanta, GA
11/22/2011
I first adapted this case for PPT/clickers two years ago, and reused it this semester. The students love it, and of the 6-8 NCCSTS case studies that I have used, I think this is the best one. I haven't tried the newer clicker version that is posted on NCCSTS, but look forward to comparing it to the one I created.

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Lili Velez

Independent Scholar
lfvelez.phd@gmail.com

12/03/2011
I've used this case for several years as an "Art Mystery" case with non-science undergraduates in a rhetoric course to show how different types of "experts" accept different kinds of evidence when they are making arguments. Even when the students struggle with the scientific concepts, they make great progress in understanding why it is that experts could come to conflicting conclusions. And, to make things more interesting, every few years there are real cases in the news that I can use to demonstrate these concepts - the latest is this article in the New York Times: "Possible Forging of Modern Art Is Investigated," by Patricia Cohen, December 2, 2011, at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/03/arts/design/federal-inquiry-into-possible-forging-of-modernist-art.html

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Laura
laura_woerner@montgomeryacademy.org
Science
Montgomery Academy
Montgomery, AL
12/07/2011
This case study reads very similar to Steel Magnolias. This is a misrepresentation of type 1 diabetes in this day and age. Yes, the complications mentioned in this study were a reality many years ago, and still are if the diabetic in question does not care for his or herself. In this day and age, modern insulins, continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pumps, and blood sugar testing have made the management of diabetes much better. Women with diabetes can have perfectly healthy children with a planned pregnancy. Diabetics who take care of themselves do not go blind, loose limbs, and have kidney failure. The newer technology for eye repair means that even severe retinopathy can be combated. This evidence has been out since the mid 90's when the DCCT was published. This case needs to be updated or amended to reflect this.

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Editor
nccsts@buffalo.edu
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY
12/07/2011
We appreciate Laura's comments, and instructors reviewing this case study will benefit from reading them. This case is based on actual events and conditions at the time that the author's sister suffered and died from diabetes. As Laura has noted, many things have changed. Users of our cases should always feel free to adapt, amend, and update any of the cases in our collection. They do not need to be used "as-is." But for some of our users, the case, in its entirety or excerpted, may serve an instructional purpose in an historical context (in fact, the case itself sets the storyline within an historical context: "I had a sister who had diabetes. She died when she was 39. If she had lived a century ago, she would have been dead by the age of 14, shortly after we discovered she had the disease. Had she been born today, she probably would have lived a full life because gene therapy would soon be able to replace her defective genes....").

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Katayoun Chamany
chamanyk@newschool.edu
Natural Sciences and Math
Eugene Lang College, The New School for Liberal Arts
New York, NY
01/07/2012
This case is excellent for teaching students how to read and understand data in primary research articles. The approach of the progressive disclosure format emphasizes the epistemology of science and encourages students to consider different hypotheses and to make predictions concerning data that would be consistent with each hypothesis. The worksheet approach of asking students to predict the results in the graphs with respect to amount of virus produced is stellar. No passive learning here! Though the case is designed for non-majors, the biology is rather sophisticated, requiring a fair amount of immunology background to address the different hypotheses for HIV resistance in this context.

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Nathaniel Hagner
jhbravo25@yahoo.com

Embry Riddle Areonautical University World Wide
Dyess AFB TX
01/09/2012
The residents of this small Ohio town have different beliefs about the justifications for the war in Iraq and the continuation of the war, as well. Some of the residents maintain a positive attitude while others disagree with the motives behind the war itself. Those who support Bush but have lost someone close in the war have a conflict of personal interest. Cognitive dissonance would predict that someone would have to lose faith in the legitimacy of the war in order to cope with the grief of losing a son/daughter to the war they have supported. Some residents disagree with the war but believe we should see it through. This is a conflict of ideals as well. You would have to maintain the idea that we must pull out of the war to stay consistent with the idea that you were opposed to it. Some residents made public claims to support their ideals concerning the war. One resident lost a son but claimed that we must move forward with the war. His patriotism added an element to help balance his ideals; although he lost a son he added an element to support his belief that the war is necessary/justifiable. This is an interesting theory but I do not believe it always stands true. People generally will have a conflict of interest in some form when concerning such a complex issue as the war in Iraq.

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Catherine Friend
catherinefriend09@gmail.com
Psychology
Institute of Art, Design and Technology
Dublin
01/25/2012
Comment: How would you reference this book?

Editor's Reply: We would cite the case study you asked about like this: Miller, A. 2008. "I Can See Clearly Now: Mini Cases in Perception." Buffalo, NY: National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo. http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/mini_perception.pdf Accessed online: January 25, 2012.

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Maryuri Roca
maryuri.roca@lawrence.edu
Chemistry Department
Lawrence University
Appleton, WI
02/03/2012
Dear Giselle and Annie,

I used your case study in class to explain the different types of chemical reaction; these are dissolution, precipitation, redox, and gas-evolution; only neutralization was missing but that is ok, because that is an extensive topic by itself. The students volunteered to do the demonstration in the classroom (on a small scale so not much chlorine gas was produced) using stainless steel spoons, a battery and a bath of water with salt. We had a lot of fun. What I like about your case study is that, different from others case studies I have seen, this is the only one that had allowed me to cover a large body of material, which I think is one of the limitations of using case studies in science.

Thanks you so much for making this case available to us.

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Janice Carpenter
jcarpenter@berlinschools.org
Science - Middle School
McGee Middle School
Berlin, CT
02/05/2012
Over the past two years, I have used this case with 10 eighth grade classes as the last activity in a reproduction/genetics unit. We need three 40-minute class periods to complete the case. Each day we read one part of the case as a whole class, students work in small groups to answer the questions in the section we just read, and the students then come back together as a whole class to discuss the answers and share their thoughts. The students love it! Thank you for a clear and interesting case.

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Francis Sullivan
Frank.Sullivan@q.com
Biology
Metropolitan State College of Denver
Denver, CO
02/07/2012
I do like this case study. I am now introducing case studies in my Human Biology class for non-science majors, Among the activities of the class, students write a number of reports during the semester. One of them is entitled "What is stem cell research?" In it, students describe the characteristics of stem cells, the various kinds of stem cells, and the various degrees of potency of stem cells. I provide them with several Internet addresses for material. I ask them to stay away from their opinion on the ethics of stem cell research. My interest is to provide the students with sufficient information about stem cells so that they can address the ethics of stem cell research in their philosophy courses. We discuss this report in class.

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Annie Prud'homme Généreux
apg@questu.ca
Life Sciences
Quest University Canada
Squamish, BC V8B 0N8 Canada
02/17/2012
AUTHOR'S NOTE AND UPDATE

The case study "Resistance is Futile" explores the discovery that some people have an apparent resistance to HIV infection. Students are given information about HIV replication and asked to hypothesize about potential mechanisms that could lead to a cell's protection against HIV infection. The mechanism that is explored in the case is a mutation in the protein CCR5, which is used by HIV-1 strains to gain entry into human cells. Without this protein, HIV-1 is unable to attach to cells, thereby protecting the host.

There are, of course, many other mutations that could afford the host some protection. The case alludes to the discovery that some people with repeated low dose exposure to HIV appear to develop immunity, perhaps because they have particularly efficient killer T cells or B cells.

An article published in February 2012 provides yet another possible mechanism of intrinsic HIV-1 resistance. It has been found that the protein SAMHD1 protects macrophages and dendritic cells from HIV-1 infection. The way in which this is achieved is by this protein’s hydrolysis and depletion of the cell's dNTP pool. Without nucleotides, the HIV's reverse transcriptase cannot convert the virus's RNA into DNA, resulting in a failed infection. The concentration of dNTPs in activated CD4 T cells is much higher than in macrophages and dendritic cells, and HIV-1 is therefore not limited for dNTPs in these cells. This is therefore a mechanism of protection that works only in macrophages and dendritic cells. What these findings suggest is a strategy in the development of treatments for HIV-1. Note that HIV-2 strains express a protein which counteracts the activity of SAMHD1 and allows the virus to proliferate in macrophages and dendritic cells.

Instructors using this case might wish to incorporate this recent discovery into the discussion during this case study. It would be a notable addition in Part 1, Question 4, which asks students to hypothesize about the mechanisms that could be used by the cell to resist HIV infection.

A summary of this recent finding is available at the following links:

How a Protein Protects Cells from HIV Infection (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120212192555.htm) Starve a Virus, Feed a Cure? (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120212192737.htm)

The original article is: Lahouassa H, Daddacha W, Hofmann H, Ayinde D, Logue EC, Dragin L, et al (2012). SAMHD1 restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by depleting the intracellular pool of deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Nature Immunology [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1038/ni.2236 PMID: 22327569

Annie

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Vera Verga
vverga@edison.edu
Sciences
Edison State College
Naples, FL
02/28/2012
Thank you for this very informative case study. It was a great activity to explain the activity of enzymes and cellular respiration. Many of my students are inspired when they can relate the activity to themselves or another human.

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Donnell Wolff
donnell.wolff@sait.ca
Medical Laboratory Technology
Southern Alberta Institute of Technology
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2M 0L4
03/08/2012
Hi there, Regarding this question 4. If Carrie had continued to breast feed, how would that have affected Hayden’s problem? Do the TSHR-Ab's make it into breast milk and if they do, are they actually adsorbed from the GI tract - is that how they worsen the condition in the baby? More antibodies would have entered Hayden and made her thyroid problem even worse.

Thanks so much, Donnell

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Janice Carpenter
jcarpenter@berlinschools.org
Science
McGee Middle School
Berlin, CT
03/11/2012
I used this case with 100 students in 5 sections of an 8th grade science class. I rewrote this case study to use as a clicker case. When rewriting, I defined words typically unfamiliar to eighth grade in parenthesis, included language art integration (per school wide initiative) questions, and included pictures, maps, diagrams and a video clip to help eighth grade students’ understanding. The case was a big hit and helped to review the scientific method. Thank you to the authors for producing a thoughtful case that created much discussion.

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Laura Wodlinger
laura.wodlinger@yrdsb.edu.on.ca
Science
Westmount Collegiate Institute
Toronto, ON
03/20/2012
Thank you for this amazing case study. My students are very inspired to learn and solve the problem. I was wondering why Patrick did not begin to show symptoms until he was 16. If this was a genetic disorder why were the onset of symptoms so delayed? Thank you.

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Sue Hutchins
sue.hutchins@itascacc.edu
Biology Department
Itasca Community College
Grand Rapids, MN
03/30/2012
In the table of blood work, I think you should have microliters, not milliliters. The original paper has microliters.

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Jo Robins
jwrobins@vcu.edu
Nursing
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA
03/29/2012
I found your site while redesigning a graduate level nursing course entitled Psychological Issues for Advanced Practice Nursing. Thanks so very much for sharing these beautiful cases and guidance for how to use them. As a relatively new faculty member in a topic area I love but experience challenges for helping students who may be more diagnostic and procedure oriented to learn about the impact of psychosocial issues on health and health outcomes, I am most grateful!

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Elisa Whitman
ewhitman@stoningtonschools.org
AP Biology
Stonington High School
Pawcatuck, CT
04/19/2012
I have adapted the PowerPoint to follow each step of Slide 18 so that it is a little clearer. If you'd like to see it, please contact me. Thank you and thanks for your great work.

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Kay Grimnes
grimnes@alma.edu
Professor of Biology
Alma College
Alma, Michigan 48801
04/26/2012
Author's Response to Donnell Wolff's Comment

The major antibody found in breast milk is the IgA secreted from the breast tissue. There is evidence for IgG and IgM antibodies present in breast milk as well. These additional antibodies can be taken up by the baby through the digestive system and contribute to immunological defense in a minor way. I have