The Origins, Risks, and Prevention of Emerging Diseases
Thomas Edison High School
Emerging diseases and potential pandemics make the news nearly every year. Students (and everyone else) may wonder where new infectious diseases come from, how scientists assess the risk of a pandemic, and how we might go about preventing one. This case study uses a PowerPoint presentation to explore these questions by focusing on HIV, a pandemic that began as an emerging disease. The storyline progresses backwards through time as scientists attempt to unravel the origins of a new, mysterious plague. Much of the case relies on audio excerpts from an episode produced by Radiolab, an acclaimed radio show that explores a variety of topics in science and culture (www. radiolab.org). Students use graphics, animations, and sound clips presented in the PowerPoint slides to discuss several sets of questions. The case is suitable for a wide range of high school and college introductory biology courses, as well as undergraduate microbiology, ethics, and public health courses.
- Explain how the molecular clock can act as a "tape measure" of evolution.
- Describe how emergent diseases can spread into human populations.
- Evaluate the effects of social and cultural factors in the transmission and understanding of disease.
- Explain how the molecular biology of HIV allows it to infect target cells.
- Outline the steps of the HIV reproductive cycle.
- Discuss the mechanisms of viral recombination, and explain its role in the emergence of new diseases.
- Describe one strategy for the prevention of new pandemics.
KeywordsVirus; AIDS; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HIV; human immunodeficiency virus; infectious disease; viral infection; emerging disease; recombination; evolution; molecular clock; pandemic
Educational LevelHigh school, Undergraduate lower division
Type MethodsAnalysis (Issues), Interrupted
Subject HeadingsBiology (General) Epidemiology Evolutionary Biology Microbiology Molecular Biology Medicine (General) Public Health
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The supplemental material below may be used with this case study:Click and Learn: Cells of the Immune System
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The following video(s) are recommended for use in association with this case study.
- HIV Life Cycle
A short video clip explaining how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery. Running time: 4:52 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.
- Recombination of Viral Genomes
A short video clip showing how two different strains of influenza can infect a single cell to produce a new third strain of influenza. Running time: 3:05 min. Produced by HHMI BioInteractive.